Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
September-December 2014
Volume 47 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 277-480

Online since Thursday, December 11, 2014

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EDITORIALS  

Clinical photography and our responsibilities Highly accessed article p. 277
Surajit Bhattacharya
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146569  
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Farewell readers p. 281
Surajit Bhattacharya
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146570  
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ICON OF THE ISSUE Top

Bernard McCarthy O'Brien: The champ who was determined to excel p. 282
Surajit Bhattacharya
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146571  
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PROF. MIRA SEN (BANERJEE) C.M.E. ARTICLE Top

Prof. Mira Sen (Banerjee) C.M.E. Article p. 284
Ramesh K Sharma
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146572  
The term orbital hypertelorism (ORH) implies "widely apart orbits." This may also be associated with the abnormal vertical orientation of the orbits (dystopia). This deformity may be unilateral or bilateral, symmetric or asymmetric and may be present in a variety of craniofacial conditions. The treatment is primarily carried out for aesthetic reasons. The timing of treatment is dictated by the underlying condition and the type of procedure envisaged. The mainstay of treatment consists of moving the orbits medially to near normal position. This is accomplished by either an orbital translocation or facial bipartition technique. The choice of procedure is governed by the shape of the maxillary arch and associated occlusal conditions. We must differentiate between the telecanthus (also called pseudo-hypertelorism) and a true ORH as the management differs in these two conditions. The ORH involves extensive intracranial and extracranial operation whereas the telecanthus correction is relatively simpler surgery. The article will discuss the aetiology, classification, presentation, treatment options, timing of surgery and the choice of surgical procedures. Illustrative case reports with long-term results will be used to explain the management of these patients.
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Current status of presurgical infant orthopaedic treatment for cleft lip and palate patients: A critical review p. 293
P Priyanka Niranjane, RH Kamble, S Pallavi Diagavane, S Sunita Shrivastav, Puneet Batra, SD Vasudevan, Pushkar Patil
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146573  
Rehabilitation of cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients is a challenge for all the concerned members of the cleft team, and various treatment modalities have been attempted to obtain aesthetic results. Presurgical infant orthopaedics (PSIO) was introduced to reshape alveolar and nasal segments prior to surgical repair of cleft lip. However, literature reports lot of controversy regarding the use of PSIO in patients with CLP. Evaluation of long-term results of PSIO can provide scientific evidence on the efficacy and usefulness of PSIO in CLP patients. The aim was to assess the scientific evidence on the efficiency of PSIO appliances in patients with CLP and to critically analyse the current status of PSIO. A PubMed search was performed using the terms PSIO, presurgical nasoalveolar moulding and its long-term results and related articles were selected for the review. The documented studies report no beneficial effect of PSIO on maxillary arch dimensions, facial aesthetics and in the subsequent development of dentition and occlusion in CLP patients. Nasal moulding seems to be more beneficial and effective in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients with better long-term results.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Cutaneous wound healing: Current concepts and advances in wound care Highly accessed article p. 303
Kenneth C Klein, Somes Chandra Guha
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146574  
A non-healing wound is defined as showing no measurable signs of healing for at least 30 consecutive treatments with standard wound care. [1] It is a snapshot of a patient's total health as well as the ongoing battle between noxious factors and the restoration of optimal macro and micro circulation, oxygenation and nutrition. In practice, standard therapies for non-healing cutaneous wounds include application of appropriate dressings, periodic debridement and eliminating causative factors. [2] The vast majority of wounds would heal by such approach with variable degrees of residual morbidity, disability and even mortality. Globally, beyond the above therapies, newer tools of healing are selectively accessible to caregivers, for various logistical or financial reasons. Our review will focus on the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), as used at our institution (CAMC), and some other modalities that are relatively accessible to patients. HBOT is a relatively safe and technologically simpler way to deliver care worldwide. However, the expense for including HBOT as standard of care for recognized indications per UHMS(Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society) may vary widely from country to country and payment system. [3] In the USA, CMS (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services) approved indications for HBOT vary from that of the UHMS for logistical reasons. [1] We shall also briefly look into other newer therapies per current clinical usage and general acceptance by the medical community. Admittedly, there would be other novel tools with variable success in wound healing worldwide, but it would be difficult to include all in this treatise.
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Evaluation of lymphangiogenesis in acellular dermal matrix p. 318
Mario Cherubino, Igor Pellegatta, Federico Tamborini, Michele Cerati, Fausto Sessa, Luigi Valdatta
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146578  
Introduction: Much attention has been directed towards understanding the phenomena of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in wound healing. Thanks to the manifold dermal substitute available nowadays, wound treatment has improved greatly. Many studies have been published about angiogenesis and cell invasion in INTEGRA® . On the other hand, the development of the lymphatic network in acellular dermal matrix (ADM) is a more obscure matter. In this article, we aim to characterize the different phases of host cell invasion in ADM. Special attention was given to lymphangiogenic aspects. Materials and Methods: Among 57 rats selected to analyse the role of ADM in lymphangiogenesis, we created four groups. We performed an excision procedure on both thighs of these rats: On the left one we did not perform any action except repairing the borders of the wound; while on the right one we used INTEGRA® implant. The excision biopsy was performed at four different times: First group after 7 days, second after 14 days, third after 21 days and fourth after 28 days. For our microscopic evaluation, we used the classical staining technique of haematoxylin and eosin and a semi-quantitative method in order to evaluate cellularity counts. To assess angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis development we employed PROX-1 Ab and CD31/PECAM for immunohistochemical analysis. Results: We found remarkable wound contraction in defects that healed by secondary intention while minor wound contraction was observed in defects treated with ADM. At day 7, optical microscopy revealed a more plentiful cellularity in the granulation tissue compared with the dermal regeneration matrix. The immunohistochemical process highlighted vascular and lymphatic cells in both groups. After 14 days a high grade of fibrosis was noticeable in the non-treated group. At day 21, both lymphatic and vascular endothelial cells were better developed in the group with a dermal matrix application. At day 28, lymphatic endothelial cells had organized themselves, engineering the pseudocylindrical structure better disposed in the ADM group than in the control group, and the lymphatic cells were detectable inside the vessels' lumen in this group. Conclusion: This study has made it possible to demonstrate the absolute importance of an ADM in proper wound healing and has shown better definition of both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of lymphangiogenesis compared to the second intention healing. A major grade of organization of the extracellular matrix and a minor grade of fibrosclerosis in ADM allowed a well-structured morphologic and functional development of the endothelial and lymphatic vascular structures. This study hopes to represent a clinical basis for a wider use of ADM in lesions where lymphatic complications are common.
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Enhancing dermal and bone regeneration in calvarial defect surgery p. 325
Bruno Zanotti, Nicola Zingaretti, Daria Almesberger, Angela Verlicchi, Roberto Stefini, Mauro Ragonese, Gianni Franco Guarneri, Pier Camillo Parodi
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146581  
Introduction: To optimize the functional and esthetic result of cranioplasty, it is necessary to choose appropriate materials and take steps to preserve and support tissue vitality. As far as materials are concerned, custom-made porous hydroxyapatite implants are biomimetic, and therefore, provide good biological interaction and biointegration. However, before it is fully integrated, this material has relatively low mechanical resistance. Therefore, to reduce the risk of postoperative implant fracture, it would be desirable to accelerate regeneration of the tissues around and within the graft. Objectives: The objective was to determine whether integrating growth-factor-rich platelet gel or supportive dermal matrix into hydroxyapatite implant cranioplasty can accelerate bone remodeling and promote soft tissue regeneration, respectively. Materials and Methods: The investigation was performed on cranioplasty patients fitted with hydroxyapatite cranial implants between 2004 and 2010. In 7 patients, platelet gel was applied to the bone/prosthesis interface during surgery, and in a further 5 patients, characterized by thin, hypotrophic skin coverage of the cranial lacuna, a sheet of dermal matrix was applied between the prosthesis and the overlying soft tissue. In several of the former groups, platelet gel mixed with hydroxyapatite granules was used to fill small gaps between the skull and the implant. To confirm osteointegration, cranial computed tomography (CT) scans were taken at 3-6 month intervals for 1-year, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to confirm dermal integrity. Results: Clinical examination performed a few weeks after surgery revealed good dermal regeneration, with thicker, healthier skin, apparently with a better blood supply, which was confirmed by MRI at 3-6 months. Furthermore, at 3-6 months, CT showed good biomimetism of the porous hydroxyapatite scaffold. Locations at which platelet gel and hydroxyapatite granules were used to fill gaps between the implant and skull appeared to show more rapid integration of the implant than untreated areas. Results were stable at 1-year and remain so to date in cases where follow-up is still ongoing. Conclusions: Bone remodeling time could be reduced by platelet gel application during cranioplasty with porous hydroxyapatite implants. Likewise, layering dermal matrix over such implants appears to promote dermal tissue regeneration and the oshtemo mimetic process. Both of these strategies may, therefore, reduce the likelihood of postsurgical fracture by promoting mechanical resistance.
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Securing aesthetic outcomes for composite grafts to alar margin and columellar defects: A long term experience p. 333
Rajeev B Ahuja, Rajat Gupta, Pallab Chatterjee, Prabhat Shrivastava
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146587  
Introduction: Composite grafts for nasal reconstruction have been around for over a century but the opinion on its virtues and failings keeps vacillating with a huge difference on the safe size of the graft for transfer. Alar margin and columellar defects are more distinct than dorsal nasal defects in greater difficulty in ensuring a good aesthetic outcome. We report our series of 19 consecutive patients in whom a composite graft was used to reconstruct a defect of alar margin (8 patients), alar base (7 patients) or columella (4 patients). Patients and Methods: Patient ages ranged from 3-35 years with 5 males and 14 females. The grafts to alar margin and base ranged 0.6-1 cm in width, while grafts to columella were 0.7-1.2 cm. The maximum dimension of the graft in this series was 0.9 mm x 10 mm. Composite grafts were sculpted to be two layered (skin + cartilage), three layered wedges (skin + cartilage + skin) or their combination (two layered in a portion and three layered in another portion). All grafts were cooled in postoperative period for three days by applying an indigenous ice pack of surgical glove. The follow up ranged from 3-9 months with an average of 4.5 months. Results: All of our 19 composite grafts survived completely but they all shrank by a small percentage of their bulk. Eleven patients rated the outcome between 90-95% improvement. We noticed that composite grafts tended to show varied pigmentation in our patients, akin to split skin grafts. Conclusion: In our opinion, most critical to graft survival is its size and the ratio of the marginal raw area to the graft bulk. We recommend that graft width should not exceed 1 cm to ensure complete survival even though larger sized grafts have been reported to survive. We recommend cooling of the graft and justify it on the analogy of 'warm ischemia time' for a replantation, especially in warmer climes like ours in India. We have outlined several considerations in the technique, with an analysis of differing opinions that should facilitate a surgeon in making an informed choice.
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Options for the nasal repair of non-syndromic unilateral Tessier no. 2 and 3 facial clefts p. 340
Srinivas Gosla Reddy, Rajgopal R Reddy, Joachim Obwegeser, Maurice Y Mommaerts
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146588  
Background: Non-syndromic Tessier no. 2 and 3 facial clefts primarily affect the nasal complex. The anatomy of such clefts is such that the ala of the nose has a cleft. Repairing the ala presents some challenges to the surgeon, especially to correct the shape and missing tissue. Various techniques have been considered to repair these cleft defects. Aim: We present two surgical options to repair such facial clefts. Materials and Methods: A nasal dorsum rotational flap was used to treat patients with Tessier no. 2 clefts. This is a local flap that uses tissue from the dorsal surface of the nose. The advantage of this flap design is that it helps move the displaced ala of a Tessier no. 2 cleft into its normal position. A forehead-eyelid-nasal transposition flap design was used to treat patients with Tessier no. 3 clefts. This flap design includes three prongs that are rotated downward. A forehead flap is rotated into the area above the eyelid, the flap from above the eyelid is rotated to infra-orbital area and the flap from the infraorbital area that includes the free nasal ala of the cleft is rotated into place. Results and Conclusions: These two flap designs show good results and can be used to augment the treatment options for repairing Tessier no. 2 and 3 facial clefts.
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Cephalometric evaluation of the pharyngeal airway space after orthognathic surgery and distraction osteogenesis of the jaw bones p. 346
S Ganapathy Sriram, Neelam N Andrade
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146589  
Objective: Orthognathic surgeries and distraction osteogenesis (DO) of the jaw bones cause a change in the pharyngeal airway space (PAS). The aim of our study was to evaluate the magnitude of changes occurring in the pharyngeal airway after mandibular set-back surgeries and DO of maxilla/mandible. Materials and Methods: The study undertaken was a retrospective cephalometric study. Subjects included in our study had undergone mandibular set-back surgery or DO of maxilla/mandible. Lateral cephalograms of the subjects taken pre-operatively (T0), immediate post-operatively (T1) and after a minimum follow-up period of 6 months (T2) were studied. The cephalograms were traced manually and the following parameters were evaluated: Surface area of the PAS, pharyngeal airway width at the level of the base of the tongue, position of the hyoid bone and the tongue. Repeated measure ANOVA test was done to assess the presence of any significant changes in the proposed parameters at T0, T1 and T2. A correlation analysis was made between the mandibular/maxillary movements and the corresponding changes in the PAS. Results: Surgical movements of maxilla and mandible do have an effect on the pharyngeal airway. Conclusion: It was clearly evident that the effects of mandibular movements on the PAS and the hyoid bone is more significant than the maxillary movements.
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Transoral versus extraoral approach for mandibular angle fractures: A comparative study p. 354
Sathya Kumar Devireddy, RV Kishore Kumar, Rajasekhar Gali, Sridhar Reddy Kanubaddy, Mallikarjuna Rao Dasari, Mohammad Akheel
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146590  
Introduction: Mandibular fractures represent approximately two-thirds of all the maxillofacial fractures (nearly 70%) out of which fractures of mandibular angle represent for 26-35%. Aim of the Study: The aim of this study is to compare the transoral and extraoral (submandibular) approaches for fixation of mandibular angle fractures. Objectives of Study: The objectives of the following study are to evaluate ease of accessibility, time taken for the procedure, ease of anatomic reduction and complications. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out in 30 patients reporting to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial surgery, Narayana Dental College and Hospital, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh during the period of months from November 2011 to August 2013 who were randomly divided in two groups based on computer generated simple randomization chart. Group I patients underwent transoral reduction and fixation and Group II patients underwent extraoral reduction and fixation. The ease of accessibility was analysed by visual analogue scale by the operating surgeon, time taken from incision to closure with digital clock, difficulty level index of surgeon based on the time taken for the procedure and approach related complications. Results: The ease of accessibility in Group I was good in 53.3% while in Group II patients approached extraorally it was good in 86.7%. Group I patients approached transorally showed a mean of 49.7 min while that of Group II patients approached extraorally showed a mean of 73.4 min. Group I had a minimum difficulty level index in 60%, moderate difficulty level in 33.3% and severe difficulty level in 6.7% while Group II had a minimum and moderate difficulty level in 46.7% and severe difficulty level in 6.7%. There was 1 (6.7%) complication reported in each group. Conclusion: The statistical analysis of this study concludes that fracture line starting anterior to mandibular third molar and ending at anteroinferior border of the insertion of the masseter muscle or posterior body of mandible can be approached transorally. Fracture line starting posterior or distal to the third molar or posterior to the insertion of the masseter muscle to the angle of the mandible or fracture line extending high in the ramus, extraoral approach provides a better choice for reduction and fixation of the fractured segments with restoration of anatomical and functional occlusion.
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Prospective long-term study of patency and outcomes of 505 arteriovenous fistulas in patients with chronic renal failure: Authors experience and review of literature p. 362
Parag Sahasrabudhe, Tushar Dighe, Nikhil Panse, Shraddha Deshpande, Amit Jadhav, Sheetal Londhe
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146592  
Background: This study describes our experience of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) creation as vascular access for haemodialysis. Materials and Methods: This study has been carried out in our hospital from January 2004 to December 2012. A total of 505 AVFs were created in 443 patients. Maximum follow-up was 8 years, and minimum was 6 months. Observations and Results: In this study of 505 cases of AVFs, primary patency rates by Kaplan - Meier analysis showed 78.81% patency of fistulas at the end of 1 year and patency dropped to 14.81% at the end of 5 years. Our primary failure rate was 21.2%. Basilic vein was used in 26.35% cases, cephalic vein in 63.5%, and antecubital vein in 9.75% cases. On table, bruit was present in 459 (90.9%) and thrill in 451 (89.3%) cases. During dialysis, flow rate >250 ml/min was obtained in 150 (29.9%) cases. In complications, 2 (0.4%) patients developed distal oedema, 33 (6.5%) developed steal phenomenon. Conclusions: Presence of on table thrill and bruit are indicators of successful AVF. If vein diameter is <2 mm, chances of AVF failure are high. Flow rates in patients with vein diam. >2 mm were significantly higher as compared with patients with vein diam. <2 mm (P < 0.001). Flow rates are higher in non-diabetic patients as compared to diabetic patients (P < 0.001). Average blood urea and serum creatinine values are significantly lesser in patients undergoing dialysis through successful fistulas as compared to patients with failed fistulas. Correspondingly, incidence of deaths is significantly lesser in patients with successful fistulas. During proximal side-to-side fistula between antecubital/basilic vein and brachial artery, dilating of the first valve toward wrist helps to develop distal veins in the forearm by retrograde flow. This technique avoids requirement of superficialization of basilic vein in the arm.
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Effect of green tea on the second degree burn wounds in rats p. 370
Mohammad Javad Fatemi, Babak Nikoomaram, Amir Asadollah Khajeh Rahimi, Donya Talayi, Shahrzad Taghavi, Yaser Ghavami
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146593  
Background: Various studies indicate that the green tea has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. Moreover, a few studies have been carried out that demonstrate beneficial effects of green tea on burned patients. Materials and Methods: In this study, green tea, Vaseline, and silver sulfadiazine dressings were used as first-aid treatment to deep dermal contact burns in rats, compared with a control of nothing. After creating second-degree burn on the dorsum of rats, the treatments were applied for 15 min in four groups. Wound dressing changes were daily. Macroscopic study was performed on days 1, 3, 7, and 14 by using a digital camera and software processing of photos. Microscopic examination was done by pathologic evaluation of skin specimens on day 14. Results: We observed that green tea usage significantly decreased burn size in comparison to the control group (P = 0.004). Conclusion: Green tea is effective on healing process of second degree burn wounds.
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Post-burn axillary contracture: A therapeutic challenge! p. 375
Durga Karki, Nikhil Mehta, Ravi Prakash Narayan
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146594  
Background: Axillary post-burn scar contracture is a challenging problem to the reconstructive surgeon owing to the wide range of abduction that should be achieved. The aim of this paper was to highlight the various options used in managing axillary contractures in our hospital. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective hospital-based study of axillary contractures managed at Safdarjung Hospital (a tertiary care hospital) from 2009 to 2013.The study consisted of 44 patients from all age group and both sex included in it. Patients with a bilateral axillary contracture were excluded. Axillary contracture was released and resurfaced using split skin graft and/or with different types of flaps including the propeller flap, parascapular flap. All the reconstructed cases were followed-up for a period of 12 months. Assessment was done on the basis of functional and aesthetic outcome. Results: Forty-four patients consisting of 25 males and 19 females presented with axillary contractures that involved 44 axillae. The mean age of the study group was 17.1 years. Injuries involved the anterior axillary fold in 8 (18.18%), posterior fold in ten (22.72%), both folds and axillary fossa in 14 (31.81%) and both folds plus part of the chest wall and arm (sparing the axillary fossa) in 12 (27.27%) axillae. Surgical treatment included split-thickness skin graft in 15 (34.1%), local skin flaps in 4 (9.1%), Z-plasties in 4 (9.1%), parascapular flaps in 3 (6.82%), while propeller flaps in 12 (27.27%) and square flap were used in 6 (13.64%) patients. The percentage of improvement in abduction had a mean of 156°. The functional and aesthetic results were satisfactory. Conclusion: The choice of surgical procedure for reconstruction of post-burn axillary contractures can be made according to the pattern of scar contracture and the state of the surrounding skin. The choice of a flap should have priority over the skin graft because of the superior functional and aesthetic results of flaps.
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Effect of intense pulsed light on immature burn scars: A clinical study p. 381
Arindam Sarkar, Yatindra Kumar Dewangan, Jayanta Bain, Pritha Rakshit, Krishnanand Dhruw, Sandip Kanti Basu, Jayanta Kumar Saha, Bijay Kumar Majumdar
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146596  
Introduction: As intense pulsed light (IPL) is widely used to treat cutaneous vascular malformations and also used as non-ablative skin rejunuvation to remodel the skin collagen. A study has been undertaken to gauze the effect of IPL on immature burn scars with regard to vascularity, pliability and height. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted between June 2013 and May 2014, among patients with immature burn scars that healed conservatively within 2 months. Photographic evidence of appearance of scars and grading and rating was done with Vancouver Scar Scale parameters. Ratings were done for both case and control scar after the completion of four IPL treatment sessions and were compared. Results: Out of the 19 cases, vascularity, pliability and height improved significantly (P < 0.05) in 13, 14 and 11 scars respectively following IPL treatment. Conclusions: Intense pulsed light was well-tolerated by patients, caused good improvement in terms of vascularity, pliability, and height of immature burn scar.
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Electrolyte and Haemogram changes post large volume liposuction comparing two different tumescent solutions p. 386
Kumar Vivek, Shah Amiti, Saha Shivshankar, Choudhary Lalit
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146604  
Background: The most common definitions of large volume liposuction refer to total 5 l volume aspiration during a single procedure (fat plus wetting solution). Profound haemodynamic and metabolic alterations can accompany large volume liposuction. Due to paucity of literature on the effect of different tumescent solutions on the electrolyte balance and haematological changes during large volume liposuction, we carried out this study using two different wetting solutions to study the same. Materials and Methods: Total 30 patients presenting with varying degrees of localized lipodystrophy in different body regions were enrolled for the study. Prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted by Department of Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi from January 2011 to June 2012. Patients were randomized into two groups of 15 patients each by using computer generated random numbers. Tumescent formula used for Group A (normal saline [NS]) was our modification of Klein's Formula and Tumescent formula used for Group B (ringer lactate [RL]) was our modification of Hunstadt's formula. Serum electrolytes and hematocrit levels were done at preinduction, immediate postoperative period and postoperative day 1. Result: Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version 15.0. Which showed statistically significant electrolytes and hematocrit changes occur during large volume liposuction. Conclusion: Statistically significant electrolytes and hematocrit changes occur during large volume liposuction and patients should be kept under observation of anaesthesist for at least 24 h. Patients require strict monitoring of vital parameters and usually Intensive Care Unit is not required. There was no statistical difference in the electrolyte changes using NS or RL as tumescent solution and both solutions were found safe for large volume liposuction.
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The efficacy of negative pressure wound therapy on chemotherapeutic extravasation ulcers: An experimental study p. 394
Evren Isci, Halil I Canter, Mehmet Dadaci, Pergin Atilla, Ayse N Cakar, Abdullah Kecik
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146611  
Context: The extravasation of the chemotherapeutic agents is not an unusual phenomenon. Necrosis of the skin and underlying structures has been reported, depending on the cytotoxicity of the extravasating drug. Despite the presence of some antidotes, such wounds tend to enlarge with time and are likely to resist the treatment. Aims: The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) on extravasation ulcers. Settings and Design: Animals were separated into two groups; conventional dressing group and NPWT group. Materials and Methods: Extravasation necrosis was established by intradermal doxorubicin injection. Following the debridement of the necrotic areas, one group of animals was treated with the conventional dressing while NPWT was applied to the other group. The wound areas were measured, and then biopsies were taken on the 3 rd , 7 th and 14 th days after the debridement. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS 11.5 for Windows was used. Two-way ANOVA test was used to compare wound areas between groups. Willcoxon sign test with Bonferroni correction was used to compare histological scores between groups. Chi-square test with Bonferroni correction was used to compare histological scores within the group between the days. Results: There is no significant difference in terms of inflammatory cell count, neovascularisation, granulation tissue formation between the groups. Contrary to these results wound areas at the end of the treatment were smaller in the NPWT group compared with the dressing group. Conclusion: There is the superiority of NPWT over conventional dressing in chemotherapeutic extravasation wounds as well as the wound area is concerned, but it is not proven histologically.
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COMMENTARY Top

The efficacy of VAC therapy on chemotherapeutic extravasation ulcers: An experimental study p. 400
Vinay Kumar Tiwari
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146613  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Karydakis procedure for sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus disease: Our experience p. 402
N Arun Kumar, Prasenjit Sutradhar
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146615  
Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate patients with sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus disease (SPSD) who underwent Karydakis procedure at our centre with reference to the perioperative findings, early and late postoperative results and recurrence. Materials and Methods: A total of 103 patients presenting with SPSD at our centre underwent Karydakis flap repair from January 2001 to December 2010. These patients were then followed-up and evaluated with respect to operative time, drain use, hospital stay, suture removal, complications, and recurrence. Results: The mean operative time was 74.9 min with a median hospital stay of 5 days. Drains were removed at a median of 7 days and sutures at a median of 15 days. Twenty-one patients presented with serous collection in the wound. Six patients had wound infection. Patients were followed-up for a median of 29 months. No recurrences were noted in any of the cases. Conclusion: Karydakis flap procedure is a relatively simple procedure for SPSD with reproducible low recurrence rates.
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REFLECTIONS Top

Beyond antisepsis: Examining the relevance of the works of Joseph Baron Lister to the contemporary surgeon-scientist p. 407
Graeme E Glass
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146619  
As the father of antispesis, the legacy of Joseph Baron Lister is assured and his influence on the development of contemporary surgical practice is recognised in the context of his achievement of predictable, infection-free surgery. However, looking beyond Lister's finest achievement and examining this work in the context of his whole career as a surgeon-scientist reveals important lessons pertinent to aspiring peers in how, by replacing surgical dogma with observation, deductive reasoning and scientific verification, by pursuing good ideas in the face of resistance and by making research directly relevant and patient-focused, lasting changes can be accomplished. This short paper aims to put Lister's developments in antisepsis in the context of his whole career, to evaluate his legacy and to commend his approach to contemporary surgeon-scientists.
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IDEAS AND INNOVATIONS Top

Timer switch to convert suction apparatus for negative pressure wound therapy application p. 412
Surath Amarnath, Mettu Rami Reddy, Chayam Hanumantha Rao, Harsha Vardan Surath
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146624  
Background: Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is an established modality in the treatment of chronic wounds, open fractures, and post-operative wound problems. This method has not been widely used due to the high cost of equipment and consumables. This study demonstrates an indigenously developed apparatus which gives comparable results at a fraction of the cost. Readily available materials are used for the air-tight dressing. Materials and Methods: Equipment consists of suction apparatus with adjustable pressure valve set to a pressure 125-150 mmHg. An electronic timer switch with a sequential working time of 5 min and a standby time of 3 min provides the required intermittent negative pressure. Readily available materials such as polyvinyl alcohol sponge, suction drains and steridrapes were used to provide an air tight wound cover. Results: A total of 90 cases underwent 262 NPWT applications from 2009 to 2014. This series, comprised of 30 open fractures, 21 post-operative and 39 chronic wounds. The wound healing rate in our study was comparable to other published studies using NPWT. Conclusion: The addition of electronic timer switch will convert a suction apparatus into NPWT machine, and the results are equally effective compared to more expensive counter parts. The use of indigenous dressing materials reduces the cost significantly.
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COMMENTARY Top

Timer switch to convert suction apparatus for negative pressure wound therapy application p. 417
Atulkumar Shah
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146697  
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IDEAS AND INNOVATIONS Top

Laser: The torch of freedom for ankyloglossia Highly accessed article p. 418
Varshal J Barot, Shivlal L Vishnoi, Sarath Chandran, Gaurav V Bakutra
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146630  
The tongue is an important oral structure that affects speech, position of teeth, periodontal tissues, nutrition, swallowing, nursing, and certain social activities. Ankyloglossia or tongue-tie, is a congenital anomaly characterized by an abnormally short lingual frenulum, which restricts mobility of the tongue. Though the ankyloglossia is not a serious condition, it may lead to a host of problems including infant feeding difficulties, speech disorders, and various mechanical and social issues related to the inability of the tongue to protrude. Hence, management of ankyloglossia should be considered at any age considering the risk-benefit evaluation. Tongue being highly vascular and mobile structure, laser-assisted lingual frenectomy is the simplest, safest and less traumatic of all the treatment modalities available, with most promising results in minimally invasive dentistry. Here, a case of ankyloglossia is reported with its management by diode laser.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Primary intra osseous venous malformation of nasal bone: A rare case report p. 423
Ajit Kumar Pati, Bibhuti Bhusan Nayak, Arun Kumar Choudhury, Debesh Kumar Rout
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146631  
Primary intra osseous venous malformation with involvement of nasal bone is a rare phenomenon. Nasal bone intraosseous venous malformation on a back ground of port wine stain of face has not been reported in the available literature. We report the very rare case of intraosseous venous malformation of left nasal bone developing on a background of port wine stain of face, its diagnosis, pathology, management and review of literature.
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Long term assessment of intralipotherapy in Madelung's disease p. 427
Silvia Scevola, Giovanni Nicoletti, Antonino Neri, Angela Faga
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146638  
Madelung's disease is characterised by multiple symmetric abnormal fat masses in the head, neck and upper limbs. Surgical excision or liposuction is the only realistic available option, although palliative in nature. The serial intralipotherapy with phosphatidylcholine/deoxycholate has been proposed as a non-invasive treatment of Madelung's disease. The authors used serial intralipotherapy with phosphatidylcholine/deoxycholate in two patients affected by Madelung's disease. Three injections per lesion per patient were performed with 1 month's interval. Pre- and 6 months' post-treatment dimensions were assessed with ultrasound scan and patients were observed along a 5 years' clinical follow-up. A 42.5% average size reduction was reported in all treated lesions. About 33% recurrence rate was observed in the 5 years' follow-up. We confirm the efficacy of intralipotherapy in the non-invasive palliative treatment of Madelung's disease, as a valid option to reduce the volume and limit the growth of the pathological adipose masses.
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Closure of chronic non healing ankle ulcer with low level laser therapy in a patient presenting with thalassemia intermedia: Case report p. 432
Snehil Dixit, Parul Raj Agrawal, Dinesh Kumari Sharma, Ravindra Pratap Singh
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146642  
In this single case study, the possible effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) was explored in the form of light emitting diodes on a chronic non-healing wound of 6 months duration in an 18-year-old male patient suffering from thalassemia intermedia. After irradiation, with LLLT dosage of 17.3 J/cm 2 for 8 min for 2 weeks duration followed by proliferative dosage of 8.65-4.33 J/cm 2 for 4 min from 3 rd week to 6 th week for 2 min along with antibiotics vancomycin (15 mg/kg) and a combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (1 g). Proliferation of healthy granulation tissue was observed with decrease in score of pressure ulcer scale with complete re-epithelialization eventually LLLT irradiation could be a novel method of treatment for chronic non-healing wound in a thalassemia intermedia patient and an useful adjunct to standard care of treatment of pressure ulcers. It is postulated that LED irradiation augments wound healing with an early closure and no recurrence at the irradiated site even after follow up of 6 months.
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Multiple bowel perforation and necrotising fasciitis secondary to abdominal liposuction in a patient with bilateral lumbar hernia p. 436
Vincent Delliere, N Bertheuil, Y Harnois, S Thienot, M Gerard, M Robert, E Watier
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146650  
We present a rare complication of abdominal liposuction: bowel perforation and necrotizing fasciitis. Because of bilateral lumbar hernia, a 56-year-old woman had caecum and descending colon perforation during lipoplasty. She had septic shock syndrome at her admission. The authors treated this complex wound with several debridement, omental flap, NPWT and split-thickness skin graft. The incidence of abdominal wall perforation with visceral injury is 14 in 100,000 liposuctions performed. There are only 12 cases of bowel perforation in literature but this complication is probably underestimated. Prompt surgical debridement is absolutely mandatory in this life threatening scenario. Lumbar hernia is very rare and should be ruled out before every abdominal liposuction clinically or with imaging modalities.
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Thermal burns on lower limb resulting from laptop use: A case report and review of literature p. 441
Nebu C Jacob, Adel Zarugh, Khushroo H Suraliwala
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146652  
We report a case of a 29-year-old man with a background history of incomplete quadriplegia, who sustained a second degree thermal burn of the lower limb from prolonged proximity to the extractor fan of his laptop. We have also reviewed all other reported cases of thermal burns associated with laptop use. This literature review highlights the variability in the extent of injury and the subsequent management of laptop induced burns.
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Avulsion amputation of the ring finger managed by double cross finger flap: 25 years follow-up p. 444
Annavarapu Gopalakrishna
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146656  
Avulsion amputation of the fingers are rare. Current trend is to replant the avulsed tissue in spite of a high rate of failure. There are situations where replantation is not possible. Various salvage procedures have been mentioned. The author is presenting a 25 year follow up of a double cross finger flap done in 1987. A similar procedure has been reported by other authors but with a short term follow up.
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Salvage of a TRAM breast reconstruction flap using the retrograde internal mammary artery system p. 447
Sameena Hassan, Tuabin Rasheed, Anna Raurell
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146657  
Background: Free tissue transfer provides an optimal means for breast reconstruction in creating an aesthetically natural appearance that is durable over time. The choice of donor vessels vary from surgeon to surgeon, but the internal mammary axis is one of the most popular choices together with the thoracodorsal vessels. Aims and Results: We present the case of a salvaged free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous breast reconstruction in which end-to-end antegrade anastomosis to the internal mammary artery (IMA) was not possible due to frail vessel walls, but retrograde anastomosis to the IMA and antegrade anastomosis of internal mammary vessel resulted in a perfused and viable flap. Conclusion: We suggest the use of the retrograde internal mammary arterial system for microsurgical anastomosis when the anterograde flow is not adequate, the vessel wall is friable, and when other more common options are not available.
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Giant rhinophyma: Excision with coblation assisted surgery p. 450
Caner Sahin, Mesut Turker, Bulent Celasun
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146663  
An 83-year-old man presented with an unusually severe case of rhinophyma. Giant rhinopyhma is very rare in literature. The giant lesion was widely excised using sharp surgical incision and coblation assisted surgery. Using direct coblation to the nasal dorsum may cause edema in the surrounding tissue. There was minimal edema in surrounding tissue using this technique. A full thickness-skin graft was applied after excision. Cosmetic and functional postoperative results were satisfactory.
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Variation of the latissimus dorsi p. 453
Ishani P Shah, Amit Yadav, Rujuta Mehta, Mukund Thatte
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146668  
A typical muscle variation of latissimus dorsi - the axillary arch is represented by the muscular or fibromuscular slip detached from the anteroinferior border of the musculus latissimus dorsi passing over the axilla under the axillary fascia crossing the medial side of the brachial plexus to continue as a septum intermusculare mediale brachii distally to the medial epicondyle of humerus. The full extent of the muscle is rarely present. Slips of muscle extend from the latissimus dorsi at the inferior angle of scapula to insert into pectoralis major (Langer), coracobrachilis, biceps or coracoid process forming what is described as a common variant - the muscular axillary arch. We report three cases of variants of latissimus dorsi, one of which has not been reported in the literature before.
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A pregnant patient with fetal distress with severe post burn contracture of anterior trunk and perineum: A surgeon's nightmare! p. 456
Madhubari Vathulya, Meenakshi Joshi
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146674  
Introduction: A case report of a pregnant lady in the third trimester, presenting in the emergency with absent fetal movements is being described. A multi-speciality expertise was involved and a full term female baby was delivered. Presentation: The patient presented in a Government hospital, Dehradun, India. At the time of presentation the fetal heart sounds were absent and subsequently the severe post-burn deformity involving the anterior trunk, perineum and thighs were discovered. Management: Immediately a multi-speciality approach involving the plastic, obstetrics and pediatrics field were called for and an emergency caesarean with simultaneous contracture release with split skin grafts were performed after optimizing the patient for surgery. Conclusion: This is one of the first case reports reporting this rare combination of post burn contracture of trunk and perineum with fetal distress requiring emergency caesarean section along with release of abdominal and perineal post-burn contracture. This case interestingly reinforces that in such complicated cases a systematic and a combined multi-speciality approach still holds the key to patient's treatment even in district hospitals.
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Post-operative brachial plexus neuropraxia: A less recognised complication of combined plastic and laparoscopic surgeries p. 460
Jimmy Thomas
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146677  
This presentation is to increase awareness of the potential for brachial plexus injury during prolonged combined plastic surgery procedures. A case of brachial plexus neuropraxia in a 26-year-old obese patient following a prolonged combined plastic surgery procedure was encountered. Nerve palsy due to faulty positioning on the operating table is commonly seen over the elbow and popliteal fossa. However, injury to the brachial plexus has been a recently reported phenomenon due to the increasing number of laparoscopic and robotic procedures. Brachial plexus injury needs to be recognised as a potential complication of prolonged combined plastic surgery. Preventive measures are discussed.
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LETTERS TO EDITOR Top

A novel technique for closure of post excisional soft tissue defects of axillary hidradenitis suppurativa p. 465
Mohit Sharma, Saurabh Sharma, Raghuveer Reddy Dudipala
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146680  
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Invited Commentary: External tissue expansion and tension relief systems for improved utilisation of the viscoelastic properties of the skin in wound closure p. 467
Moris Topaz
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146682  
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Concrete scalp in trauma p. 469
Soumya Gupta, Amish Gohil, Ashish Kumar Gupta
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146684  
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The ulnar digital artery perforator flap: A new flap for little finger reconstruction- our experience and reply p. 470
Ananta A Kulkarni, Suhas V Abhyankar, Madhuri Kulkarni, Rohit R Singh
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146685  
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Postoperative flare-up of tuberculosis following vaginoplasty p. 470
Alpana Singh, Amit Verma, Sneha Shree, Sweta Lal
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146689  
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Indelible voters' ink causing partial thickness burn over the fingers p. 472
Sanjay Kumar Mishra, Karoon Agrawal, Shalabh Kumar, Upendra Sharma
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146691  
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Superiorly based V flap for inguinal soft tissue defect reconstruction p. 474
Vinoth Kumar Dilliraj, Pradeoth Korambayil Mukundan
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146693  
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"Bottle cap as bite block": An innovative intraoral splint p. 475
Madhubari Vathulya, Prateek Arora, Raghav Mantri, Sunil Choudhary
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146694  
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Taking the next step in documentation: Why and how? p. 477
Himanshi Aggarwal, Pradeep Kumar
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146695  
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OBITUARY Top

Suresh Tambwekar: A personal tribute p. 479
HS Adenwalla
DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.146696  
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