Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery
An open access publication of Association of Plastic Surgeons of India
Users Online: 242  
Home | Subscribe | Feedback | Login 
  Navigate here 
 Resource links
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
    Article in PDF (592 KB)
    Citation Manager
    Access Statistics
    Reader Comments
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  
  In this article
   Article Figures
   Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded47    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


 Table of Contents    
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 49  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 424-425

Cross-sectional study of epidemiology of congenital anomaly of the hand in a tertiary care centre in India over 1 year

Department of Burns and Plastic Surgery, B.J. Wadia Hospital for Children, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Date of Web Publication30-Dec-2016

Correspondence Address:
Mukund Thatte
Burns Research Unit, B.J. Wadia Hospital, Acharya Donde Marg, Lower Parel, Mumbai - 400 012, Maharashtra
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0970-0358.197231

Rights and Permissions

How to cite this article:
Mody NB, Srinivasan S, Thatte M. Cross-sectional study of epidemiology of congenital anomaly of the hand in a tertiary care centre in India over 1 year. Indian J Plast Surg 2016;49:424-5

How to cite this URL:
Mody NB, Srinivasan S, Thatte M. Cross-sectional study of epidemiology of congenital anomaly of the hand in a tertiary care centre in India over 1 year. Indian J Plast Surg [serial online] 2016 [cited 2019 Jan 16];49:424-5. Available from:


Congenital hand anomalies, although rare, incur significantly physical and psychological trauma. Timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment can change the future of the child. Therefore, it is essential for treating doctor to refer these children to appropriate specialists.

The aim of this study is to know the epidemiology of such anomalies at our centre over a 1-year period, i.e. to know the most common diagnosis, risk factors and associated anomalies.

This study includes patients of congenital hand anomalies who had come to our OPD in the last 1 year, i.e. from 1st September 2015 to 31st August 2016. A total of 80 patients were seen, of those, 59 were new and 21 had come for follow-up. Forty-two were female patients and 38 were males. Mean age of the patients was 33.8 months, with eldest being 13 years and youngest being 10 days. Sixty-six patients were Hindus, 13 Muslims and 1 Christian. Four patients were born out of consanguinous marriage (4th degree).

Mean age of mothers at the time of birth was 24.7 years. Forty-eight children were the first issue of their parents, 26 were the second issue, 5 were the third issue and 1 was the fourth issue. One pair of twins was noted. Higher incidence of anomalies in primipara was also noted in the study by Ghorpade et al.[1] Forty-three children were born as full-term vaginal delivery, while rest had delivered by caesarean section. In the study by Ghorpade et al., rate of caesarean delivery was 44% which in India is just 8.5%.[1],[2] Thirty-four patients had birth weight ≤ 2.5 kg.

Ratio of bilateral hand involvement to right to left side is 5:1.6:1. Among all congenital anomalies, syndactyly was most common (31 cases). Next common was radial club hand [Table 1]. This is in contrast to studies done in the United States in a mid-Western Centre and at Ludhiana (India) where polydactyly is the most common, followed by syndactyly [Figure 1] and [Figure 2].[1],[3]
Table 1: Type of congenital hand anomaly

Click here to view
Figure 1: Case of Poland syndrome with left symbrachydactyly

Click here to view
Figure 2: Case of bilateral radial club hand

Click here to view

The most common associated anomalies in our series included Apert syndrome, Poland syndrome and isolated cleft palate. All associated anomalies are listed in [Table 2]. Vasluian et al. in their study done in Northern Netherland showed Patau syndrome to be the most common chromosomal anomaly while arthrogryposis was common among single gene anomalies. Cardiovascular system was most commonly affected.[4]
Table 2: Type of associated anomaly

Click here to view

Forty-eight patients were operated among eighty patients in the last 1 year. The limitation of our study includes small sample size; therefore, the results may not be applicable to large population. This study however is still an interesting cross-sectional data of consecutive cases over a 1-year period.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

Ghorpade N, Goyal N, John J. Prevalence of musculoskeletal abnormalities in newborn: A 10 years retrospective analysis of 10,674 neonates in Indian population at a tertiary care hospital. J Clin Neonatol 2015;4:104-8.  Back to cited text no. 1
  Medknow Journal  
Gibbons L, Belizán JM, Lauer JA, Betran AP, Merialdi M, Althabe F. The Global Numbers and Costs of Additionally Needed and Unnecessary Caesarean Sections Performed per Year: Overuse as a Barrier to Universal Coverage. World Health Report, Background Paper, No. 30; 2010.  Back to cited text no. 2
Goldfarb CA, Wall LB, Bohn DC, Moen P, Van Heest AE. Epidemiology of congenital upper limb anomalies in a Midwest United States population: An assessment using the Oberg, Manske, and Tonkin classification. J Hand Surg Am 2015;40:127-32.e1-2.  Back to cited text no. 3
Vasluian E, van der Sluis CK, van Essen AJ, Bergman JE, Dijkstra PU, Reinders-Messelink HA, et al. Birth prevalence for congenital limb defects in the Northern Netherlands: A 30-year population-based study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2013;14:323.  Back to cited text no. 4


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]

  [Table 1], [Table 2]


Print this article  Email this article


Site Map  |  Home  |  Contact Us  |  Feedback  |  Copyright and Disclaimer
Online since 11th March '04
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow