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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 46  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 325-332
 

Treatment of unfavourable results of flexor tendon surgery: Skin deficiencies


Department of Hand Surgery, St. Andrew's Centre for Plastic Surgery, Broomfield Hospital, Chelmsford, Essex, United Kingdom

Date of Web Publication21-Sep-2013

Correspondence Address:
David Elliot
Woodlands, Woodham Walter, Essex CM9 6LN
United Kingdom
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0970-0358.118611

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 » Abstract 

We recently reported a small study at the Federation of European Societies for Surgery of the hand, which was entitled 'What is secondary flexor tendon surgery'? This study concluded that 'secondary flexor tendon surgery' was a generic name encompassing a multitude of pathologies. Between 10% and 15% of cases exhibited pathology of the skin and subcutaneous fat and required flap reconstruction of these tissues. Skin replacement may be used prophylactically at primary surgery or become necessary at secondary surgery after release of scar contractures, to achieve cover of vital structures. The long-term problem of skin deficiency relating to flexor tendon function is one of loss of extension from longitudinal scar shortening of the integument, even if the flexor tendons are primarily concerned with bending the digits, not straightening them. This loss of extension can only be tolerated in a hand to a certain degree without significant loss of function. This paper is largely an analysis of the flaps available and suitable for different degrees of skin deficiency and at different places along the course of the flexor system. It attempts to dispel the idea that 'any flap will do' provided the flexors are adequately covered.


Keywords: Finger flaps; skin defect in secondary flexor tendon surgery; tendon cover


How to cite this article:
Elliot D, Giesen T. Treatment of unfavourable results of flexor tendon surgery: Skin deficiencies. Indian J Plast Surg 2013;46:325-32

How to cite this URL:
Elliot D, Giesen T. Treatment of unfavourable results of flexor tendon surgery: Skin deficiencies. Indian J Plast Surg [serial online] 2013 [cited 2019 Jul 17];46:325-32. Available from: http://www.ijps.org/text.asp?2013/46/2/325/118611



 » Introduction Top


We recently reported a small study at the Federation of European Societies for Surgery of the Hand which was entitled 'What is secondary flexor tendon surgery'? This study concluded that 'secondary flexor tendon surgery' was a generic name encompassing a multitude of pathologies not only of the flexor tendons themselves but also of the other tissues on the flexor aspect of the hand and forearm, which came to secondary surgery after an injury of the flexor tendons. The study analysed the mixed bag of activities we carry out under this heading. Almost 40% of cases had pathological changes in three or four of the examined structures, which included the tendons themselves, the tendon sheath and pulleys, the joints and skin and subcutaneous tissues. Between 10% and 15% of cases exhibited pathology of the skin and subcutaneous fat and required flap reconstruction of these tissues.

Skin replacement may be used prophylactically at primary surgery or become necessary at secondary surgery after release of scar contractures, to achieve cover of vital structures, in this instance the flexor tendons and our repairs of them. The long-term problem of skin deficiency relating to flexor tendon function is one of loss of extension from longitudinal scar shortening of the integument, even if the flexor tendons are primarily concerned with bending the digits, not straightening them. This loss of extension can only be tolerated in a hand to a certain degree without significant loss of function.

Although this paper is largely an analysis of the flaps available and suitable for different degrees of skin deficiency and at different places along the course of the flexor system, it attempts to dispel the idea that 'any flap will do' provided the flexors are adequately covered. This is not the case and flap selection can impinge considerably on long-term function. Flaps brought from other parts of even the same hand or forearm do not have the same properties as the skin on the palmar surface of the hand and digits. They are all, to some degree, unsuitable as they lack the combination of deep tethering of the skin and sensation of the original. Wherever, possible local skin rearrangement is more suitable as all distant flaps will contain some subcutaneous fat and will suffer the problem of oedema swelling in the post-operative period, with resolution of the latter being variable and unpredictable. This creates, at least, an obstruction to full flexion of the digits and often will also have a 'wobble' factor which makes firm gripping difficult and imprecise.

For this reason, the oldest technique of skin reconstruction by controlled healing by secondary intention, used almost uniquely by the Ancient Egyptians, known to Galen in Roman Times and used by us routinely in management of minor fingertip injuries, should not be forgotten. Allowed to progress in a dry environment, this forms a lot of subcutaneous scar and thin atrophic overlying skin, known in earlier times as 'cicatrisation': An undesirable result. Carried out in a moist environment without infection, this growing of skin forms almost perfect skin with minimal subcutaneous scarring. As this cannot be bettered by our reconstructions, it can be used in flexor surgery, but mostly in a limited manner for small skin defects, when the sheath is closed and/or covered by subcutaneous fat. Surprisingly, it can be used with small exposures of the flexor tendons themselves of about 1 cm in length and we use this in exceptional circumstances [Figure 1]. Skin grafting also has a place as it creates a firm and adherent palmar skin surface, which is preferable to a wobbly flap.

Applying full thickness graft to the injured finger can be done successfully when there are small gaps in the tendon sheath, but not after more extensive flexor tendon exposure. Full thickness graft reconstruction will cover intact nerves, arteries and the flexor tendon sheath well with only the very severest of manual labour wearing through the graft and, even then, only after many years. It has the considerable disadvantage that it is not possible to operate again through the mature graft. The authors have no experience of the use of dermal substitutes with secondary skin grafting but suspect this may be useful, particularly in the palm, where the mobility of distant flaps is a particular problem.
Figure 1: (a) A neglected burn in a 60-year-old man with exposed flexor tendon of the right little finger and no active flexion of the finger (no suture material in the tendons). To allow immediate mobilisation as the priority, the wound was dressed twice daily by the patient with moist antiseptic dressings and the hand mobilised very actively. (b) Skin closure with full active extension and flexion at 6 weeks

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 » Skin Deficiency in the Flexor Aspect of the Finger Top


Simple lacerations

If one examines the under the surface of the subcutaneous fat during dissection of a digit to reach the tendon sheath for any secondary flexor tendon surgery, one will almost always see that this rarely escapes some scar deposition within the subcutaneous fat as a result of the primary insult, (however slight) and/or previous surgery [Figure 2]. This results in tightening of the overlying skin and causes longitudinal skin shortening, perhaps slight, but usually present to some degree. We routinely open cases for secondary surgery using a mid-lateral incision to allow this incision to be extended into the distal palm as a 'V' [Figure 3]a. This allows one to advance the 'V' of skin from the palm into the finger to compensate for this subcutaneous scarring [Figure 3]b. The palmar 'V' can often be closed as a 'Y', but this tightens the skin of the distal palm and we usually leave the 'V' open to epithelialize under moist antiseptic dressings, as with a fingertip with skin loss only, while mobilising the hand post-operatively. The patient cleans the small wounds and redresses them himself/herself twice daily. We first reported use of this technique, based on a simple modification of the Hueston flap, many years ago, for reconstruction of skin deficits of the palmar aspect of the fingers. [1] This advancement of palmar skin is usually enough to deal with skin shortage where the skin injury has been a simple cut.
Figure 2: The under surface of the skin and subcutaneous fat of a typical case of flexor tenolysis, showing the scarring of the subcutaneous fat which causes a longitudinal skin deficiency

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Figure 3: (a) Marking of the typical skin excisions used by the authors for secondary exploration of the digital flexors. These include distal palmar 'V' incisions. (b) These allow advancement of the distal palmar skin into the digits to counter the typical skin shortage due to subcutaneous scarring shown in Figure 2, with the palmar wounds being allowed to heal by secondary intention under moist antiseptic dressings during early post-operative mobilisation

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Moderate skin deficiency

Pre-operatively, it is usually obvious from the nature of the primary injury and/or the appearance of the finger if more significant skin shortage is present and more skin will have to be incorporated onto the palmar aspect of the finger to achieve full extension [Figure 4]a. Use of a cross finger flap is a simple way of incorporating more skin onto the palmar aspect of the finger for moderate skin deficiency. The finger is opened through the same mid-lateral incision and distal palmar 'V' as above. The incision is placed on the same side of the injured finger as the intended donor finger for a cross finger flap [Figure 4]b. The mobilised skin is split at the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) level and a cross finger flap incorporated into the gap [Figure 4]c-e.
Figure 4: (a) A 28-year-old man with more extensive shortage of skin of the right middle finger, for which the palmar V incision technique is inadequate. (b) The same incision is made initially, then the flap is split at the proximal interphalangeal joint level (shown by the green line). (c) A cross finger flap from the ring finger is inset into the split. (d and e) The fingers are mobilised normally post-operatively, then the cross finger flap pedicle divided at 3 weeks

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Extensive skin deficiency

Cases with greater skin deficiency need more extensive flap reconstruction, sometimes of the whole palmar aspect of the digit. There are many options of local pedicled, distant pedicled and free flaps available.

Local pedicled flaps from the dorsum of the finger

The cross finger flap has been a workhorse for the tip and palmar surface reconstruction of the digits for more than 50 years and is still very useful. I do not like these flaps for fingertip reconstruction as they have poor sensation, but they are useful for long defects more proximally when the problem of poor sensitivity is of less significance. Even for more proximal reconstruction of the palmar surface of the finger [Figure 5], they still have the disadvantages of being a two-stage procedure and leaving dorsal finger scarring at the donor site, which is entirely unpredictable. Hypertrophic or pigmentation change here can be disfiguring as this is the side of our hands most commonly in view. A donor finger for a cross finger flap may also not be available if reconstructing adjacent finger injuries. Many small dorsal finger flaps have been described for reconstruction of the fingertip and palmar surface, but these are generally too small for use under these circumstances and have the same cosmetic problem as the cross finger flap.
Figure 5: (a) A cross finger flap used to reconstruct a two segment palmar defect of the left middle finger in a 30-year-old man (b) the dorsal donor defect on the ring finger

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Local pedicled flaps from the palmar or lateral aspect of the finger

This donor site is not commonly used but can be useful as dissection is simple and there is no donor site scarring on the dorsum of the hand. Using the concept of the Littler flap, a neurovascular island flap is raised on one vascular pedicle of a finger adjacent to the injured finger and moved onto the palmar aspect of the injured finger. The flap can include only one side or the palmar aspect of the donor finger and lateral tissue or the whole of the palmar aspect of the finger. The donor finger is reconstructed with full thickness graft in the manner used in Dupuytren's disease when performing dermofasciectomy [Figure 6]. Occasionally, one sees lacerations of the palmar or lateral surfaces of the finger with tissue losses, which are longitudinal in shape and exposing the flexor tendons. These are easily closed by raising bipedicle flaps on either side of the defect. [2] Incisions are made down the mid-lateral lines of the fingers and the flaps dissected deep to the subcutaneous tissues between these incisions and the tendon sheath such that each flap includes one neurovascular bundle. [2] Initially, we grafted the lateral defects but later abandoned the grafting as this delayed mobilisation while awaiting graft take and was not necessary as these skin defects close very quickly, over 2-3 weeks, under moist antiseptic dressings. They also allow egress of oedema, making mobilisation quicker and easier for the patient.
Figure 6: A rare patient with Dupuytren's disease which started at the age of 9 years. (a) The patient, now aged 15, with already previous dermofasciectomies of the right middle, ring and little fingers, reconstructed with full thickness graft. At this operation, a dermofaciectomy has been carried out to the index finger and (b) resurfaced over the digital nerves, arteries and tendon sheath with full thickness graft

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Local pedicled flaps from the dorsum of the hand

Perhaps the most simplest and most useful of all of the available flaps is the modern version of the dorsal metacarpal artery flap. These flaps were first described by Maruyama and by Quaba and Davison in two articles which appeared adjacent to each other in the British Journal of Plastic Surgery in 1990. [3],[4] The flaps described in these papers suffered the disadvantage of their vascular pedicle being too far proximally on the dorsum of the hand, making them too short to reach the tip of the finger on its flexor aspect or the proximal nail fold on the dorsum. Since then, various authors have reported that these flaps can be pedicled more distally on small vessels at the bases of the fingers linking the dorsum of the hand with the dorsal and palmar blood supply of the fingers and by small connecting blood vessels through the actual web spaces to the palmar blood supply. These studies are summarised well in the text, beautiful illustrations and references of the paper by Vuppalapati et al. from Chennai and Paris in the same journal in 2004. [5] This flap has the advantage of requiring only loupe magnification to dissect it, being local to the hand and can be used to replace the whole palmar surface of the finger [Figure 7]. These flaps generally leave a reasonable donor defect of a longitudinal linear scar on the dorsum of the hand. We were taught to be wary of using the Quaba/Muruyama flaps on the ulnar side of the hand as the dorsal metacarpal arterial basis of the flaps is less consistently present on the ulnar side of the hand. Whether this is a problem when using the more distally based flaps has not been determined.
Figure 7: (a) Two-segment loss of skin and subcutaneous tissue of the left ring finger with flexor tendon exposure in a 42-year-old man. (b) A dorsal metacarpal artery flap being harvested on the distal second web pedicle. (c) To cover the palmar finger defect up to the finger-tip (case presented courtesy of Mr. G. Vuppalapati)

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Local pedicled flaps from the palm

Zancolli described a flap taken from the distal palm, based on retrograde flow down one digital artery, itself fed from the other digital artery through the transverse communicating vessels at the PIP joint level. [6] I do not use this flap routinely but it is occasionally useful as shown in [Figure 8]. The flap has been used in a young woman who had already suffered loss of the little finger and allowed reconstruction of a two segment defect of the ring finger and revascularisation of this finger without donor site scarring on the dorsum of the hand or fingers. As described by Zancolli, the donor defect was skin grafted, leaving an ugly hole down to the lumbrical muscle in the palm. Reconstruction of the donor defect to avoid this is described later. [7]
Figure 8: (a) A 23-year-old woman with a degloving amputation of the left little finger and near-total amputation of the tip of the ring finger and a two segment palmar skin loss of the same finger. A Zancolli reverse arterial flap has been dissected. The incisions are marked for bipedicle flaps to be used to close the palm. The skin markings on the thenar eminence overlie small veins of suitable size for use in the tip revascularisation. (b) The Zancolli flap transposed and (c) the tip revascularised and the palm closed. The zig-zag wounds in the palm will heal by secondary intention under moist antiseptic dressings during early post-operative mobilisation

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Local pedicled flaps from the flexor aspect of the forearm

Distally based island flaps, based on either the radial or ulnar artery and are commonly used for hand reconstruction, despite often leaving ugly forearm scarring, which is undesirable in people from warmer climates who routinely have the forearms exposed. This donor site scarring is particularly obvious if the donor site is skin grafted. Although used less often, the ulnar artery pedicle can be dissected free into the middle of the palm, so the flap reaches the tip of the finger more comfortably. An additional advantage of the more distal turning point of the ulnar artery pedicle for reconstruction of the palmar aspect of the finger or thumb is that the skin island can be placed at the wrist, utilising the thin pliable skin of this part of the forearm, beloved of oral reconstructive surgeons when carried, as a free flap, on the radial artery, for reconstruction of the floor of the mouth. Although originally described in New Zealand in 1988, [8] it has more recently been re-described by Guimberteau [9] to resurface the whole palmar aspect of a finger in conjunction with vascularised replacement of the flexor tendon by use of a segment of the ring finger flexor superficialis tendon from the wrist level, with both tendon and skin paddle carried on the distally-based ulnar artery pedicle.

Local pedicled flaps from the dorsum of the forearm

The reverse posterior interosseous artery flap, while unable to reach the palmar aspect of the index finger, will reach the palmar aspect of the ulnar fingers [Figure 9]. It is a useful alternative to the dorsal metacarpal artery flap for these fingers. It leaves a good donor site scar, which can always be closed directly, even if the whole width of the palmar aspect of the finger is reconstructed, and this scar usually remains a thin line, which is often well hidden in the hair of the male forearm.
Figure 9: (a) A two segment skin and subcutaneous tissue defect of the right little finger in a 40-year-old man. (b and c) early and late views of the reconstruction with a reverse posterior inter-osseous artery flap

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Distant pedicled and free flaps

The groin and other lower abdominal flaps can be used for palmar surface reconstruction of the digits but are two-stage procedures with a need for secondary thinning in many cases. Most of the older generation of free flaps, although avoiding the second stage, take longer to perform, have the same problem of subcutaneous fat and will swell significantly, so, require secondary thinning of the flap later. The newer generation of free flaps includes some, such as the instep fla [10],[11] [Figure 10] and the newer version of free venous flap [12],[13],[14] [Figure 11] and the glabrous palmar flap [15] which have little subcutaneous fat, largely, but not entirely, avoid this problem. The venous flaps return again to the flexor aspect of the wrist as a donor site for thin skin. The glabrous palmar flap uses skin of the palm, based on the palmar cutaneous branch of the superficial radial artery, either as a free flap or as a reverse-flow island flap.
Figure 10: (a) Markings for a free instep flap in a 23-year-old man with a three segment loss of skin and subcutaneous fat of the left index fingers. (b and c) Late views of the reconstructed finger (case presented courtesy of Mr. M. Tare)

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Figure 11: (a) A three segment loss of skin and subcutaneous fat of the left little finger as a result of a degloving injury. (b) An arterialised free venous flap harvested from the same forearm. (c and d) Early post-operative views of the reconstructed finger

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 » Skin Deficiency in the Palm Top


Skin deficit in the palm presents a particular reconstructive problem as distant flaps often achieve skin cover at the expense of a hand which the patient cannot use for gripping because of either the bulk of the flap or its undue mobility, both a result of overmuch subcutaneous fat in the flap and/or post-operative oedema, which does not resolve enough. Full thickness skin graft works well as a palmar skin substitute as it is thin and adherent and only rarely wears out with very hard manual activity. It cannot, of course, be laid over bare tendons and cannot be used if further surgery is contemplated. Although we have no personal experience of use of dermal substitutes and secondary grafting, they may have a place here if the initial dermal substitute provides adequate and safe tendon cover during early mobilisation and before grafting is carried out.

Another alternative which avoids distant flaps is the reconstruction with local flaps by rearranging the skin of the palm. This is often possible for small and medium-sized defects. For round, or near-round, defects of the palm, large triangular flaps are useful [Figure 12]. This technique was first described by Colen et al. in 1988 for closure of defects on the sole of the foot. [16] One, or more, skin triangles are designed and incised adjacent to the defect [Figure 12]a. The fibres immediately below the triangular skin incisions are released by pressing down on the subcutaneous fat with a scalpel, then the deeper fat is mobilised by blunt scissor dissection. The blood supply of each flap is from small arterial branches coming through the subcutaneous tissues from the underlying neurovascular bundles. While a very small flap may have insufficient blood supply beneath the triangle of skin, big flaps are entirely safe. These flaps will slide freely in any direction after being released in this way [Figure 12]b. Several flaps may be designed, each sliding in a different direction, or a very big one, designed right across the palm, may be used.
Figure 12: (a) A 32-year-old man presenting for secondary flexor surgery with a near-round skin deficiency in the distal palm. A palmar triangle flap has been designed and dissected prior to movement laterally into the defect. (b) Late view showing excellent healing of the palm with palmar skin

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A longitudinal exposure of a flexor tendon in the palm can be closed quickly and simply using local bipedicled flaps similar to those used in the fingers [2] [Figure 13]. We first reported this technique as a means of closing the gap in the palm after harvesting a Zancolli reverse digital artery flap for finger-tip reconstruction. [7] Two bipedicle flaps are designed, one on either side of the defect [Figure 13]a. The common digital neurovascular structures are retained in the flaps by dissecting under the skin bridges at a deep level, immediately adjacent to the tendons and their sheaths. At the lateral margin of each palmar flap, only the skin is incised and the fibres in the subcutaneous fat broken by blunt scissor dissection to create a much more superficial wound. The palmar flaps then slide in to close the deep defect [Figure 13]b and the superficial lateral wounds epithelialise under moist antiseptic dressings, done by the patient during the first few post-operative weeks of mobilisation, as in the McCash open palm technique in Dupuytren's surgery [Figure 13]c.
Figure 13: (a) A 43-year-old man presenting for secondary flexor surgery with a longitudinal defect of the palm and exposure of the flexor tendons in the mid-palm. The poor quality palmar skin has been excised. This view also illustrates multiple pulley reconstructions from discarded proximal superficialis tendon over a silicone rod. (b) Bipedicle flaps have been advanced centrally to close the mid-palmar defect. (c) Late view of the palm, healed with palmar skin. As in Figure 8, the zig-zag wounds in the palm have healed by secondary intention under moist antiseptic dressings during early post-operative mobilisation

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 » Skin Deficiency in the Flexor Aspect of the Forearm Top


Skin deficiency exposing flexor tendons in Zone 5 can be easily reconstructed in most cases with local flaps from the forearm, using the V-Y fasciocutaneous technique [17],[18],[19] or using fascial flaps with skin graft or fascial flaps carrying a skin island vascularised by the underlying fascia. [20],[21],[22] These reconstructions may be based on either the radial or the ulnar artery in the distal forearm. Alternatively, various free flaps in common use may be used according to surgical preference.

 
 » References Top

1.Moiemen N, Elliot D. Palmar V-Y reconstruction of proximal defects of the volar aspect of the digits. Br J Plast Surg 1994;47:35-41.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]    
2.Yii NW, Elliot D. Bipedicle flap reconstruction of longitudinal palmar skin and soft tissue defects of the digits. J Hand Surg Br 2002;27:122-8.  Back to cited text no. 2
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3.Maruyama Y. The reverse dorsal metacarpal flap. Br J Plast Surg 1990;43:24-7.  Back to cited text no. 3
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4.Quaba AA, Davison PM. The distally-based dorsal hand flap. Br J Plast Surg 1990;43:28-39.  Back to cited text no. 4
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5.Vuppalapati G, Oberlin C, Balakrishnan G. Distally based dorsal hand flaps: Clinical experience, cadaveric studies and an update. Br J Plast Surg 2004;57:653-67.  Back to cited text no. 5
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6.Zancolli EA. Colgajo cutaneo emn isla del hueco de la palma. Prensa Med Argent 1990;14:14-20.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Moiemen NS, Elliot D. A modification of the Zancolli reverse digital artery flap. J Hand Surg Br 1994;19:142-6.  Back to cited text no. 7
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8.Glasson DW, Lovie MJ. The ulnar island flap in hand and forearm reconstruction. Br J Plast Surg 1988;41:349-53.  Back to cited text no. 8
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9.Guimberteau JC. New ideas in hand flexor tendon surgery. Aquitaine. Domaine Forestier; 2001. p. 135-43.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Ninkoviæ M, Wechselberger G, Schwabegger A, Anderl H. The instep free flap to resurface palmar defects of the hand. Plast Reconstr Surg 1996;97:1489-93.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Oh SJ, Koh SH, Chung CH. Wide thumb and the first web reconstruction using a neurovascularised instep free flap. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2010;63:1565-8.  Back to cited text no. 11
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12.Moshammer HE, Schwarzl FX, Haas FM, Maechler H, Pierer G, Wiltgen M, et al. Retrograde arterialized venous flap: An experimental study. Microsurgery 2003;23:130-4.  Back to cited text no. 12
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13.Koch H, Scharnagl E, Schwarzl FX, Haas FM, Hubmer M, Moshammer HE. Clinical application of the retrograde arterialized venous flap. Microsurgery 2004;24:118-24.  Back to cited text no. 13
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14.Giesen T, Forster N, Kuenzi W, Giovanoli P, Calcagni M. Retrograde arterialised free venous flaps for the reconstruction of the hand: review of 14 cases. Plast Reconstr Surg 2013.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Orbay JL, Rosen JG, Khouri RK, Indriago I. The glabrous palmar flap: The new free or reversed pedicled palmar fasciocutaneous flap for volar hand reconstruction. Tech Hand Up Extrem Surg 2009;13:145-50.  Back to cited text no. 15
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16.Colen LB, Replogle SL, Mathes SJ. The V-Y plantar flap for reconstruction of the forefoot. Plast Reconstr Surg 1988;81:220-8.  Back to cited text no. 16
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17.Bardsley AF, Soutar DS, Elliot D, Batchelor AG. Reducing morbidity in the radial forearm flap donor site. Plast Reconstr Surg 1990;86:287-92.  Back to cited text no. 17
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18.Elliot D, Bainbridge LC. Ulnar fasciocutaneous flap of the wrist. J Hand Surg Br 1988;13:311-2.  Back to cited text no. 18
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19.Elliot D, Bardsley AF, Batchelor AG, Soutar DS. Direct closure of the radial forearm flap donor defect. Br J Plast Surg 1988;41:358-60.  Back to cited text no. 19
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20.Becker C, Gilbert A. The cubital flap. Ann Chir Main 1988;7:136-42.  Back to cited text no. 20
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21.Elliot D, Lloyd M, Hazari A, Sauerland S, Anand P. Relief of the pain of neuromas-in-continuity and scarred median and ulnar nerves in the distal forearm and wrist by neurolysis, wrapping in vascularized forearm fascial flaps and adjunctive procedures. J Hand Surg Eur Vol 2010;35:575-82.  Back to cited text no. 21
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22.Yii NW, Niranjan NS. Fascial flaps based on perforators for reconstruction of defects in the distal forearm. Br J Plast Surg 1999;52:534-40.  Back to cited text no. 22
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    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9], [Figure 10], [Figure 11], [Figure 12], [Figure 13]


This article has been cited by
1 treatment of unfavourable results of flexor tendon surgery: ruptured repairs, tethered repairs and pulley incompetence
elliot, d. and giesen, t.
indian journal of plastic surgery. 2013; 46(3): 458-471
[Pubmed]



 

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