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 »  Abstract
 » Introduction
 »  Frontal Bone Fra...
 »  Naso-Orbito-Ethm...
 »  Orbitozygomatic ...
 » Orbital Fractures
 » Le Fort Fractures
 » Mandibular Fractures
 » Pan Facial Fractures
 » Summary
 »  Technical Pitfal...
 »  References
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 46  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 221-234
 

Unfavourable outcomes in maxillofacial injuries: How to avoid and manage


Department of Plastic Surgery, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

Date of Web Publication21-Sep-2013

Correspondence Address:
Ramesh Kumar Sharma
Department of Plastic Surgery, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh - 160 012
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


PMID: 24501458

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 » Abstract 

Faciomaxillary injuries remain one of the common injuries managed by plastic surgeons. The goal of treatment in these injuries is the three-dimensional restoration of the disturbed anatomy so as to achieve pre-injury form and function. In this article, the authors review the anatomic, diagnostic and management considerations to optimise results and minimise the late post-traumatic deformities. Most of the adverse outcomes are usually a result of poorly addressed underlying structural injury during the primary management. An accurate physical examination combined with detailed computed tomographic scanning of the craniofacial skeleton is required to generate an appropriate treatment plan. This organised approach has proven effective in restoring the injured structures to pre-injury status. Multiple clinical cases are used to illustrate the different fracture patterns along with various surgical techniques to achieve an acceptable outcome. Early diagnosis and timely management of complications in these complex injuries is also discussed.


Keywords: Craniofacial skeleton; faciomaxillary injuries; fracture; post-traumatic deformity


How to cite this article:
Parashar A, Sharma RK. Unfavourable outcomes in maxillofacial injuries: How to avoid and manage. Indian J Plast Surg 2013;46:221-34

How to cite this URL:
Parashar A, Sharma RK. Unfavourable outcomes in maxillofacial injuries: How to avoid and manage. Indian J Plast Surg [serial online] 2013 [cited 2019 Jul 16];46:221-34. Available from: http://www.ijps.org/text.asp?2013/46/2/221/118597



 » Introduction Top


Facial injuries by their nature result in very obvious and noticeable alteration of the facial profile and soft-tissue landmarks. Restoration of all involved structures to pre-injury status is important, both from aesthetic and functional point of view. In the past two decades, management of facial fractures have undergone significant changes. These include diagnostic evaluation with high resolution scans; fixation with plate and screws; primary bone grafting; and early mobilisation and rehabilitation. All these have taken standard of care for faciomaxillary trauma patients to a higher level of improved treatment outcomes and recovery. Despite this, it is not rare to find patients with suboptimal outcome especially with regard to facial aesthetics in our follow-up clinics. There could be various contributory factors leading to an adverse outcome including diagnostic errors, inadequate management or incomplete follow-up. The unfavourable outcome may also be secondary to the severity of the injury itself, but strict adherence to basic principles of bony reduction as well as soft-tissue repair can help to minimise suboptimal results. In this article, we evaluate the factors leading to unfavourable results in common fractures types and methods to circumvent these. We also discuss potential pitfalls likely to be encountered during the management of faciomaxillary injuries in general.


 » Frontal Bone Fractures Top


These constitute approximately 8% of all facial fractures and are usually a result of road traffic accidents. [1],[2] Many of these fractures are open injuries with breach of skin externally and often communicate with sinuses. [3] Such fractures are predisposed to both contamination and sinus infection and obstruction. There may be concurrent midfacial trauma in as high as 50% of the cases; further complicating the results. The overall complication rate following frontal sinus infection approaches 10-20% and includes early and delayed complications [4] [Table 1]. A computed tomographic (CT) scan is required to delineate the fracture lines and the extent of involvement, so as to formulate an appropriate plan. These fractures are best accessed through a bicoronal incision barring a few cases of limited frontal bone injuries with overlying lacerations having no nasofrontal duct involvement. Frontal bone fragments can be replaced after adequate debridement and repositioned. However, the involvement of frontal recess area by fracture is likely to cause sinus obstruction and mucocoele formation. In such cases, frontal sinus mucosa should be meticulously removed from walls of the sinus and bone fragments before replacing them. Frontonasal duct area should also be cleaned of mucosa and obliterated bilaterally with autogenous tissue to prevent ascending infection from nasal cavities. [5] Extensive injuries with involvement of posterior wall and cerebrospinal fluid leak merit cranialisation of sinus after removal of all sinus mucosa and obliteration of nasofrontal duct area. A pericranial/frontogaleal flap in the area of anterior skull base defect further reduces the possibility of infection from nasal cavity. [6] In the event of infection, local drainage and appropriate antibiotics need to be instituted. Any cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula at the time of exploration requires dural closure with fascia lata reinforcement. Even after following above guidelines, significant bony resorption may occur leading to cosmetic contour deformity. Contour correction requires the use of autologous or alloplastic materials according to surgeon's preference. All patients need to be followed-up to identify development of mucocoele usually with CT scan examinations. [Figure 1] shows a case of fracture frontal and nasal bones with CSF leak along with globe injury. The eye had to be enucleated and the CSF leak stopped with conservative treatment. The reconstruction of contour defect and saddle nose deformity was performed 6 months later with split cranial bone graft. The contracted eye-socket was also released and artificial eye prosthesis was inserted. In cases with just cosmetic deformity along with depressed frontal bone fractures, a camouflage surgery can be undertaken using a combination of both autogenous and bone and hydroxyapatite [7] [Figure 2].
Figure 1: Upper row: Appearance 6 months after depressed fractures frontal bone and bone loss along with saddle nose deformity. Patient had cerebrospinal fluid leak for 2 weeks and globe injury also. The eye has been enucleated. Lower row: Reconstruction of frontal bone defect with cranial bone graft along with saddle nose correction with a cantilever bone graft. The contracted eye socket was released and an ocular prosthesis was inserted

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Figure 2: Contour deformity following depressed fracture frontal bone (upper row). Camouflage done with a combination of hydroxyapatite cement and split cranial bone grafts (lower row)

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Table 1: Complications of frontal sinus fractures

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 » Naso-Orbito-Ethmoid Fractures Top


Appropriate management of naso-orbito-ethmoid fractures in the primary setting is of paramount importance as functional and cosmetic deformities arising as a result of inadequate management are difficult to correct secondarily [Table 2]. Majority of the complications occur as a result of:
Table 2: Complications of naso-orbito-ethmoid fractures


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  • Failure to make accurate diagnosis
  • Inadequate exposure
  • Incomplete reduction and stabilization
  • Unsatisfactory positioning of medial canthus
  • Loss of fixation of canthi
  • Loss of nasal lining.
The meticulous reduction and stabilization of the canthus-bearing medial orbital rim segment with adequate soft-tissue management of the medial canthal area remains the key to successfully repairing and restoring pre-injury facial appearance. [8],[9] The best way to confirm the diagnosis of a nasoethmoid orbital fracture is the combination of physical examination and CT scans. A high degree of suspicion is necessary in any patient with midface trauma as periorbital oedema may mask the findings, particularly if displacement is minimal. The CT scan is used to confirm the diagnosis and to assess the pattern, degree of comminution, amount of displacement and associated fractures. A thorough, high-resolution scan (1.5-mm cuts) is necessary to adequately assess the internal orbit. [10] One of the most frequent pitfalls leading to inaccurate fixation of nasoethmoidal fractures is inadequate exposure. Usually a coronal, lower eyelid and a gigivobuccal sulcus incision are required to expose, reduce and stabilize all the peripheral buttresses of nasoethmoidal fragment. In most nasoethmoidal fractures, the canthus remains attached to a relatively large bony fragment of medial orbital rim. Adequate repositioning of this 'central fragment' is key to accurate positioning of medial canthus. [11] If the segment is large enough with stable surrounding bony structures; plate and screw fixation is usually sufficient. In case the canthal ligament is partially or completely stripped or the canthus bearing segment is communited; the canthus should be re-attached to a site posterior and superior to lacrimal fossa. This step should be done after bone reduction and fixation is complete. Transnasal wire fixation of canthus is an accepted method of repositioning and fixing the medial canthal tendon in such a scenario. Adequate care should be taken to ensure trans-nasal wire reduction posterior and superior to lacrimal fossa so as to avoid splaying of posterior aspect of frotal process of maxilla which can create telecanthus. We have found the use of a two hole plate to be of great help in performing a medial canthopexy in late cases. [12] Here, the upper hole of the plate is fixed to the solid bone anteriorly and the lower hole is utilised for fixing the canthal tissue using a stainless steel wire thus ensuring that the canthopexy is at the level of Lacrimal crest [Figure 3]. If the surgery is done in the primary setting in suitable cases such as type 1 or 2 nasoethmoid (NOE) fractures it is possible to correct the nasoethmoid fracture by disimpacting and fixing it with a nasal splint [Figure 4].
Figure 3: Method of canthopexy using a two hole plate (upper row). The steps of canthopexy (middle and lower row). Mustardee's dancing man flap has also been done for correcting the epicanthal fold

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Figure 4: A case of nasoethmoid fracture in acute stage (upper row). The fracture has been dis-impacted and reduced successfully (lower row). It is possible in type 1 and 2 NOE fractures

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In nasoethmoidal fractures with extensive communition improvement of nasal height and contour requires placement of bone graft over re-assembled nasal framework. Splintage of soft- tissue over reconstructed area during healing phase further improves the contour. In the fractures treated late, extensive stripping is required to free the bony fragments from scar tissue to accomplish reduction. Dorsal nasal bone grafts are invariably required in this subset of patients for adequate nasal height and projection. [Figure 5] shows a patient who had severe NOE fractures that were initially managed conservatively because of poor general condition. 6 months later he had severe residual deformity that necessitated camouflage surgery with onlay cantilever bone grafting using split cranium.
Figure 5: Late neglected case of type 3 nasoethmoid fracture with gross contour deformity and saddle nose (upper 2 rows). He underwent onlay bone grafting for contour correction and a cantilever bone grafting for the saddle nose deformity correction (lower two rows)

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 » Orbitozygomatic Fractures Top


Fractures involving the zygoma are among common facial fractures seen in trauma centres. Accurate anatomical reduction in the primary setting, usually within 2 weeks of injury, is imperative because this is the best opportunity to restore the patient to their pre-injury state. When fixing the arch fractures, the arch is straight and not curved: very common mistake leading to horizontal lengthening of the midface. Secondary correction of deformities related to the untreated or mistreated, malpositioned zygoma is challenging and often less successful because of bony malunion and soft-tissue contracture. [13] The zygoma has five articulations that can be used to guide anatomical reduction namely, the frontozygomatic suture, zygomaticomaxillary buttress, the inferior orbital rim, the zygomatico-temporal suture and the zygomatico sphenoid suture. Rigid internal fixation can be achieved at four of these articulations. Reduction and fixation of three of the four potential points of fixation (buttresses) will correct both translation and rotation of the zygoma in three-dimensional space. [14] Zygomatic mal-position after treatment is related to failure to achieve reduction at all the buttresses usually secondary to incomplete exposure. In majority of the cases exposure of zygomatic arch (through coronal incision) is not required and entire reduction can be performed through anterior approach utilising gingivobuccal sulcus incision, subciliary or transconjunctival incision and lateral brow or upper blepharoplasty incision. One of the common deformities encountered following zygomatic bone reduction is lack of projection of malar eminence. This occurs if the zygoma is not tipped up at the time of fracture reduction and maintained in that position while plate fixation is being applied. This can be achieved either by Carroll-Girard screw or by placing a bone hook under the body of zygoma through the buccal sulcus incision. Another common abnormality is lower positioning of orbital rim leading to increase in orbital volume and enophthalmos. The best way to prevent these deformities is the careful exposure of all fracture lines and the accurate reduction of these fractures at their articulations with adjacent bone. The zygomaticosphenoid alignment at the lateral orbital wall is recognised as a fundamental key to the proper reduction of orbitozygomatic injuries. Displacement at this surface indicates a residual rotational deformity. Facial symmetry is achieved by restoring the three-dimensional position of the malar prominence and orbital volume is restored by alignment of the zygoma with the sphenoid. If this is not done, the fractures will merely be rigidly plated in an unreduced position. [15] [Figure 6] shows a malunited fracture zygoma with malar flattening, malrotation and enophthamos. This necessitated refracturing the malunion and resurfacing the bony defects in the lateral wall and the floor with split cranial bone grafts to achieve correct contour and orbital volume. Fractures involving the medial orbit could be associated with an ipsilateral naso-orbito-ethmoid fracture. The displaced naso-orbito-ethmoid should always be addressed before the final reduction of the zygoma. Owing to thin overlying skin at inferior orbital rim and frontozygomatic suture, palpability of plates is another undesirable consequence of zygomatic fixation. This can be minimised by using low profile 1.5 mm plates at these sites.
Figure 6: Malunited fracture zygoma with malar flattening 6 months after the injury. The lateral wall and floor show a bony gap (upper row) the segments were re-fractured and fixed in the correct position. The bony gaps in the floor and lateral wall required bone grafts (lower row)

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 » Orbital Fractures Top


The magnitude of orbital fractures in relation to facial injuries varies from simple blow-out fracture of floor to disruption of anterior and middle orbital sections. These are associated with significant ocular injuries in up to 29% of cases. [16] Thus a careful eye examination is critical including assessment by an Ophthalmologist. Visual acuity, pupillary examination and testing for colour desaturation should be done to identify cases with traumatic optic neuropathy and treated accordingly. Inadequate management of these fractures are associated with significant complications [Table 3]. The orbital fractures are best evaluated by high resolution CT scan in axial and coronal planes for precise wall identification. The most common indication for surgery is a large floor defect usually >1 cm 2 . [17] Surgical exposure is adequately provided by subciliary or transconjunctival incision with lateral canthotomy. Subciliary incision is associated with higher incidence of lid retraction in inexperienced hands. In patients with medial wall component of orbital fracture, access can be achieved by trans-caruncular incision. The subtarsal incision is a useful compromise between subciliary and transconjunctival. This is a fairly commonly used approach and has the advantage of avoiding lid retraction but the scar is more obvious. Once the defect is encountered, the elevator should be placed into the defect and prolapsed periorbita should be elevated in an upward sweeping motion so as to avoid dissecting through the periorbita and injuring extraocular muscles. The superior inclination of the orbital floor should also be kept in mind while attempting to find posterior edge of defect. It may be helpful to place the periosteal elevator straight back and contact the posterior wall of the maxillary sinus. One may then slide the elevator superiorly until the under surface of the intact orbital floor is reached. By then sliding the elevator anteriorly, one may quite easily find the location of the posterior edge of the defect. It may be useful to remember the anatomical about distances from the orbital margin: At 10 mm margin anterior ethmoidal, 20 mm posterior ethmoidal and >30 mm optic nerve territory is present. Once the defect has been defined, the surgeon must choose an implant or graft to reconstitute the defect. Although there are many proponents of calvarial bone grafts, there are substantial disadvantages like the need of additional incision and potential morbidity of harvesting cranial bone. Furthermore, there is the issue of potential resorption with these grafts especially when bone is layered in the orbit to correct for volume deficiency. Among the synthetic choices, titanium meshes are commonly used. These allow easy contouring to fit any size orbital defect. If feasible all implants should be fixated. The most common mistake in reconstructing orbital fractures is to dissect directly posteriorly and place the implant into the maxillary sinus rather than inclined upwards along the orbital floor. After reconstructing the orbital floor confirmation of proper vertical level of globe should be done, which has an accurate relationship to late post-operative appearance. However, the globe should appear anteriorly overcorrected to compensate for surgical or post-traumatic swelling. Finally, a forced duction test should be performed to ensure that the implant has not trapped any of the periorbita. In the early post-operative period lid retraction if discernable should be managed with aggressive lower eyelid massage and forced eye closure exercises. This resolves the majority of cases. After 4 to 6 months of conservative therapy, unresponsive retractions may be better managed operatively. Fat atrophy can also occur in post-operative period leading to enophthalmos. This usually necessitates re-exploration and correction. In more extensive trauma to the orbit, all the walls of the orbit may be fractured, resulting in loss of eye and total disruption of the orbit. Here, all the orbital walls and floor may need to be reconstructed in order to restore the volume. Later prosthesis may be put for cosmetic rehabilitation [Figure 7].
Figure 7: Extensive injury to the orbit resulting in total disorganization of orbit and loss of eye (upper row). All the orbital walls need reconstruction. Contoured cranial bone grafts are planned to be harvested (middle row). The contracted eye socket was released and an ocular prosthesis was placed (lower row)

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Table 3: Complications of orbital fractures

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 » Le Fort Fractures Top


Fractures involving the maxilla often result from high-energy blunt force injury to the facial skeleton. Typical mechanisms of trauma include motor vehicle accidents, altercations and falls. [18],[19] As the maxilla serves as a bridge between the cranial base superiorly and the dental occlusal plane inferiorly, these fractures lead to alteration in occlusion as well as facial height. Timely and systematic repair of these fractures provides the best chance to correct deformity and prevent unfavourable sequelae. Patients with facial fractures have distorted bony architecture with soft-tissue swelling and ecchymoses with posterior retrusion of the mid face resulting in a flattened appearance of the face. The maxillary segment is displaced posteriorly and inferiorly. This may cause premature contact of the molar teeth, resulting in an anterior open bite deformity. In severe cases, the upper airway may be compromised. Disimpaction may be attempted manually or with disimpaction forceps around the alveolar arch and premaxilla. If the segments do not move readily and the airway is obstructed, an emergent tracheotomy or cricothyrotomy may be necessary. Severe bleeding may occur from soft-tissue lacerations or intranasal structures. A combination of pressure, packing, cauterisation and suturing may be useful in such situations. The face and cranium should be palpated to detect for bony irregularities, step-offs, crepitus and sensory disturbances. Mobility of the mid face may be tested by grasping the anterior alveolar arch and pulling forward while stabilising the patient with the other hand. The size and location of the mobile segment may identify, which type of Le Fort fracture is present. With high-impact force, the maxilla may be comminuted or impacted, in which case the bony framework is displaced or crushed, but immobile. A thorough nasal and intraoral examination should be completed. The intraoral examination should assess occlusion, overall dentition, stability of the alveolar ridge and palate and soft-tissue. Finger palpation of the maxillary contour intraorally may provide additional information about the integrity of the nasomaxillary buttress, anterior maxillary sinus wall and zygomaticomaxillary buttress. Unlike Le Fort II fractures, Le Fort III fractures are associated with lateral rim and zygomatic breaks. CT scan preferably with 3-D reconstruction remains imaging modality of choice for these fractures. [20] Many times these fractures may be associated with frontobasilar fractures [21] [Figure 8]. This helps in accurate diagnosis of fracture pattern reveals associated bony or soft-tissue injuries and aids in appropriate treatment planning. The goal of treatment is to restore proper anatomic relationship of the facial skeleton, achieve the midfacial height and projection along with dental occlusion and masticatory function. Complete restoration of dental occlusion with maxillomandibular fixation (MMF) is mandatory as MMF accurately restores the position of the base of the maxilla. This is followed by reduction and fixation of other segments of the maxilla. An impacted maxillary segment requires disimpaction usually with disimpaction forceps. Access to Le Fort I level is through upper gingivobuccal sulcus incision. The incision should be made 5-10 mm labial to the apex of the sulcus to preserve a cuff of untethered mucosa for closure. Le Fort II fractures require additional transconjunctival or subciliary incisions for nasomaxillary or inferior orbital rim exposure. Lateral brow incisions, glabellar fold incisions, or bicoronal scalp flaps can be used for additional exposure required in Le Fort III fractures. Aggressive lavage of sinuses and irrigation of nasal and oral cavity should be done to minimize chances of infection before fixation. Miniplate fixation is currently the most reliable fixation method with monocortical, self-tapping screws. 1.2 mm microplating system for upper mid face and 1.5 miniplating system for lower midface is the most commonly used hardware. Use malleable templates for accurate contouring of plates and use of plates that span the involved major buttresses are helpful in achieving adequate union with accurate occlusion. For Le Fort III fractures, bilateral zygomaticofrontal fixation with additional points of fixation at nasofrontal, orbital rim or zygomatic arch is required. In the presence of communition with bone loss, bone grafts should span the defect. In the absence of these grafts plates and screws loosen over time leading to malunion/non-union and malocclusion. Even in the presence of extensive bone loss it is usually possible to re-assemble at least one of the buttresses, which provides a clue to the midfacial height and reconstruction of other buttresses. If none of the buttresses can be re-assembled anatomically by repositioning their component parts, lip-tooth position is the best clue to midface height. [6] Communited fractures are prone to development of post-operative malocclusion as microfractures may develop in the thin bone used for fixation leading to loosening of screws. In these cases, considerable stability can be achieved by 3 weeks of MMF after which motion maybe instituted.
Figure 8: Midface fractures can be associated with fractures of the frontobasilar region when the trauma is severe. The frontobasilar region can also get injured because of direct trauma also

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In high velocity injuries there may be extensive bony communition and it may not possible to locate any bony buttress. Here, primary bone grafting can be undertaken utilising the bone plates both as bone grafts and stabilising struts [Figure 9].
Figure 9: First and second row: Extensive communition in fracture maxilla and zygoma. There are fractures of all the orbital walls also. Third row showing extensive bone loss which is planned to be reconstructed with split cranial bone grafts. Fourth row: Reconstructed bony frame work. Fifth row: Post-operative result

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 » Mandibular Fractures Top


Complications of arising during management of mandibular fractures occur as a result of insufficient treatment [Table 4]. In general, the complications are proportionate to the severity of fracture and are more common with open fractures. One of the most common reasons for poor results is the initial failure to establish satisfactory occlusion. Inadequate fixation or fixation in malreduction both lead to poor outcome. Complete analysis of pattern of mandibular fractures is provided by CT scan as it displays the exact pattern of fracture along with communition if present. A simple orthopentogram is sufficient for an isolated mandible fracture. Majority of simple fractures of symphysis, body and angle can be adequately approached by intra-oral incisions. Submandibular approach can be used for communited fractures of angle and body not suitable for intra-oral approach. Condylar fractures can be addressed by pre-auricular or retromandibular approach. For non-communited fractures, 2 mm miniplates with monocortical screws along lines of osteosynthesis provide adequate stability. [22],[23] However, in fractures with communited segment or bone loss, load bearing osteosynthesis is preferred. [24] Malunion with malocclusion results from inadequate occlusal or bony reduction in primary setting, or secondary to inadequate fixation method. [25] Early recognition facilitates complete reduction and stable fixation. Delayed cases require osteotomies or orthodontic management depending on the severity. Non-union occurs because of fracture instability, infection or implant failure. Infection requires drainage and institution of appropriate antibiotics along with removal of loose implant. After control of infection load bearing fixation with or without bone grafts can achieve bony union. Ankylosis is a rare complication of mandibular fractures. It is most likely to occur in children and is associated with intracapsular fractures and immobilisation of the mandible. It is believed to occur secondary to intra-articular haemorrhage, leading to abnormal fibrosis. Ankylosis may result in disturbed growth and underdevelopment of the affected side in children. The use of only short periods of intermaxillary fixation in children can help reduce the occurrence of this complication. The inferior alveolar nerve and its branches are the most commonly injured nerves during exposure. Inferior alveolar nerve should be protected during intra-oral exposure to avoid inadvertent damage. Damage to the marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve is rare. More commonly, nerve damage is caused by trauma in the region of the condyle, ramus and angle of the mandible or by lacerations along its course. Most of the sensory and motor functions of these nerves improve and return to normal with time.
Table 4: Complications of mandibular fractures

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 » Pan Facial Fractures Top


Panfacial injuries involve trauma to the upper, middle and lower facial bones. As such injuries are commonly associated with multisystem injury or polytrauma, treatment often requires a team approach. [26],[27] Restoration of pre-injury facial aesthetics and function is the goal of treatment. The principles of surgery in a panfacial trauma are the same as those outlined for each facial unit.

Px total restoration of facial form and function prevents latent cosmetic and functional deficits. As with all other facial injuries CT scan allows individual assessment of injuries and is a prerequisite for optimal diagnosis, planning, reduction and outcome control. Radiographic evaluation should not be restricted to the 3-D views since multiplanar 2-D view may show critical features not seen in the 3-D views. Pre-operative treatment planning is essential for achieving good results in panfacial injuries. Complete information regarding the location and extent of all fractures, the extent of bone loss and the presence of dentoalveolar injury must be ascertained before proceeding. Submandibular endotracheal intubation may be an alternative to tracheotomy in the surgical treatment of patients with these severe injuries [28],[29] [Figure 10]. The two basic ways to address the treatment sequence for panfacial fractures have traditionally been the bottom-to-top or top-to-bottom techniques. However, the basic tenets of treatment are establishing fixation from a stable segment to an unstable segment while maintaining the occlusal relationship. Usually, the first step is to focus on the reestablishment of the maxillomandibular unit. If there is a Le Fort type fracture and no sagittal split of the palate and mandibular fractures, establishment of the correct mandibular dental arch configuration can be obtained using the intact maxillary dental arch through MMF. If there is a Le Fort type fracture, a sagittal split of the palate and no mandibular fractures, the mandibular dental arch may be used as a guide in re-establishing the occlusion and width of the maxillary dental arch. However in the presence of a sagittal split of the palate together with mandibular fractures, reestablishment of the proper width of the disrupted dental arches is more difficult. The surgeon must reconstruct lesser damaged dental arch and use it as a template for the other. In cases where there are condylar fractures, open treatment of these fractures will restore proper mandibular height and chin position. After the proper maxillomandibular unit has been restored with the proper premorbid occlusion. The next step is to begin the reduction and fixation of the remainder of the midface starting from the calvarium and working in a caudal direction. The reconstruction sequence to re-establish midfacial buttresses and dimensions start with the most reliable reference structures and on the side with the least comminution. Using the calvarium as the foundation for the remainder of the midface reconstruction, the surgeon progresses from this level down to the Le Fort I level. Initially, the zygoma is positioned into its proper three-dimensional position taking care to properly line up the lateral wall of the orbit with the greater wing of the sphenoid. The proper alignment of the zygomatic arch and the infraorbital rim must be taken into consideration during the reduction of the various fractures. The completion of the reconstruction of the periorbital areas is performed by addressing the NOE and nasal fractures. The next step in midface reconstruction is fixation across the Le Fort I level. If everything has been perfectly aligned, the fractures at the Le Fort I level should also align perfectly. If a patient has a malalignment at the Le Fort I level, the surgeon needs to reassess the other fracture alignments and consider a correction. The last fractures to be reconstructed are generally the fractures of the orbital walls and orbital floor. Maxillomandibular fixation is now performed and the mandibular fractures are repaired. Any condylar fractures may be treated open or closed depending on the wish of the surgeon. The occlusion should be rechecked at the end of the case. Depending on the fixation and stability of the fractures, the comminution and complexity of the case and the presence of an untreated condylar fracture, the surgeon needs to decide whether to leave the patient in MMF or not. Thus, development of a step-by-step treatment plan prior to surgery and adherence to the general principles of maxillofacial trauma simplify the treatment of these patients and enable the surgeon to obtain good results. [30],[31] A panfacial fracture should also have good post-operative radiologic documentation of a proper reduction. Strict follow-up is essential as dynamic forces (e.g., masticatory function and occlusion), scarring, oedema, sensory and motor dysfunction, atrophy, temporomandibular joint dysfunction, dental problems may contribute to unfavourable aesthetic and functional outcome and secondary deformity. [Figure 11] shows a patient where there were fractures of the frontobasilar region, maxilla, zygoma and mandible. Patient also had CSF leak and facial nerve palsy. He was on a ventilator for 4 weeks and then taken up for surgery and underwent fixation of all the fractures and primary bone grafting keeping in mind all the principles discussed above for management of panfacial fractures.
Figure 10: Submental intubation for maxillofacial injury (above). Well healed and cosmetically acceptable scar of the submental intubation (below)

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Figure 11: A panfacial fracture involving frontobasilar region, maxilla, zygoma, orbit and mandible (upper two rows). He also had cerebrospinal fluid leak. The facial palsy can also be seen. Third row shows planning of the reconstruction. The defect in the orbital roof was also repaired using bone grafts. The medial orbital wall floor, infraorbital margin and the malar region also required bone grafting. The mandible and maxilla were fixed with plates and screws. Fourth row shows post-operative appearance

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 » Technical Pitfalls in Management of Faciomaxillary Injuries Top


In general, management faciomaxillary injuries are associated with several undesirable sequelae ranging from soft-tissue deformity to bony non-union. Unfavourable scarring may be avoided by closing facial incisions in a 2-layered fashion, with deeper subcutaneous absorbable sutures placed to remove tension from the skin closure. Skin closure should be performed with non-traumatic handling of wound edges and should result in the wound edges being slightly everted. Intraoral incisions may dehisce partially or completely because of inadequate closure during surgery, poor oral hygiene, local trauma, or excessive motion. When designing the gingivolabial incisions, a cuff of mucosa should be maintained on the gingiva to allow for adequate soft-tissue upon which to suture. If dehiscence occurs, maintaining local hygiene alone allows for eventual healing. Lower lid ectropion may follow a subciliary approach to the maxilla. This complication may be avoided by performing meticulous dissection between the orbital septum and orbicularis oculi muscle and, for patients in whom laxity is present, superolateral suspension of the muscle to the periosteum of the lateral orbital wall. If severe ectropion occurs, breaking up the scar with Z-plasty or skin grafting from the opposite lid skin may be necessary. Lower lid transconjunctival incisions decrease the likelihood of ectropion and should be considered in high-risk patients. Nerve injury may have occurred prior to surgery from the initial traumatic insult. Therefore, the status of the main sensory and motor nerves of the face and forehead must be documented prior to surgery. Care should be taken to identify and preserve the supraorbital and infraorbital neurovascular pedicles while the soft-tissue flaps are raised. More commonly, supraorbital nerve injury results from nerve stretching in retracting the soft-tissue and orbital tissues to gain access to the superior and medial orbital rims. The frontal branch of the facial nerve may be injured from excess traction on the forehead flap. Anatomic disruption of the nerve may occur if the improper plane is used to access the zygomatic arch. Nerve injury is often incomplete and temporary. Injury to tooth roots from misplaced screw holes may result in nonviable teeth. If fracture lines are low and do not allow an area adequate to avoid teeth when placing plates, suspension or interosseous wire fixation may be considered. Post-operative infections are more apt to occur in the setting of extensive soft-tissue injury, contaminated wounds, open fractures, fractures communicating with intranasal or intraoral spaces, or non-evacuated sinus blood. Complete debridement and meticulous irrigation before fixation can help in reducing infection rates. Long-term unchecked infection may cause osteomyelitis around the sites of the screws or wires. Removal of these implants and debridement of bone may be then necessary. Malunion and resultant malocclusion and deformity occur if reduction is not precise or if loosening of fixation occurs during the post-operative period. This can be avoided with meticulous surgical technique and adequate fixation, preferably with carefully contoured miniplates. Patient noncompliance with MMF and early mastication may result in micromotion, which leads to poor bone healing. If malunion is discovered early, fixation (wires or plates) must be removed and replaced to achieve normal occlusion and better stabilization. For delayed presentations in which the bones have healed into malposition, osteotomies must be performed through or near the original fracture sites and the bones must be repositioned with rigid fixation. In rare instances, bone resorbs as a result of malunion and motion and osseous interposition grafts or overlay grafts may be required. Total non-union is less common than malunion. In most cases, maintaining an extended period of fixation and immobility results in eventual healing. For persistent non-union, fracture sites must be re-explored, freshened and re-fixated. Again, areas of gaps may need to be addressed with osseous grafts.


 » Summary Top


With currently available diagnostic modalities including CT scans, the management of facial trauma victim has become highly technical. The successful treatment of facial fractures can be accomplished by a variety of techniques provided one adheres to sound surgical principles related to the diagnosis, stable fixation and rehabilitation of the patient. Repair of simple, non-communited facial fractures consistently result in good outcome. However, complex fractures often leave the patient with some long-term cosmetic and functional deficits. In such a scenario, early and meticulous surgery is probably the best available option to restore the patient to the pre-trauma state. Prompt recognition of complications, when they do occur, with timely and appropriate management can potentially prevent an unfavourable outcome with regards to facial aesthetic contour and occlusion.

 
 » References Top

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    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9], [Figure 10], [Figure 11]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

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