Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery
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 ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2010  |  Volume : 43  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 34--39

Long-term results of high-density porous polyethylene implants in facial skeletal augmentation: An Indian perspective


Department of Plastic Surgery, Gokuldas Tejpal Hospital, Mumbai, India

Correspondence Address:
Sanjeev Deshpande
401, Rukmini Sadan, Hanuman Cross Road, Near Shivaji School, Vile Parle (E), Mumbai - 400057
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0970-0358.63955

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Context: With the increasing emphasis on well-sculpted facial features, today there is a growing need for tools to augment the facial skeleton; either for cosmetic reasons or to re-contour deformities-congenital, post-traumatic and post-ablative. The limitations of autogenous materials has lead to evolution of numerous 'alloplasts', of which, high-density porous polyethylene (HDPE) seems to be a promising alternative. Aims: To evaluate the long term results of HDPE in facial skeletal augmentation in terms of achieving desired facial contour, patient satisfaction and complications. Settings: A tertiary care referral centre in a metropolitan set-up. Design: Case Series Materials and Methods: All patients undergoing HDPE implant insertion for facial skeletal augmentation between July 2001 and November 2009 were included in the study. A total of 70 HDPE implants were inserted in 44 patients. All procedures were performed by a single surgeon following standardized pre, intra and post-operative protocols. The results were evaluated with respect to improvement in facial contour desired and achieved, overall patient satisfaction and complications encountered. Results: The study included 44 patients with a male:female ratio of 1:1, a mean age of 25.09 years (14 to 58 years) and a mean follow-up of 45.34 months (0.5 to 100 months). HDPE implants were used to augment the nasal dorsum, maxilla, malar eminence, chin, mandibular body and angle, orbital rim and frontal region. The overall recontouring afforded by the HDPE implants was good, with most patients reporting satisfactory results. There were seven complications (10%), including three cases of deviation (4.29%), three cases of exposure (4.29%) and one case of sub-clinical infection (1.43%). None however necessitated implant removal. Nasal dorsal HDPE implants, especially those involving secondary surgery, suffered a much higher complication rate compared to other implants. Conclusions: HDPE is an alternative to autogenous grafts for facial skeletal augmentation with good long-term results and a low incidence of complications, provided there is adequate vascular soft tissue cover.






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